THE PARIS AGREEMENT AND CLIMATE GEOENGINEERING GOVERNANCE: THE NEED FOR A HUMAN RIGHTS-BASED COMPONENT

 

William C.G. Burns

 

 

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

 

ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations

BECCS bioenergy with carbon capture and storage

CCS carbon capture and sequestration

CDR carbon dioxide removal

COP Conference of the Parties

CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child

CROZEX CROZet Natural Iron Bloom and EXport Experiment

DAC direct air capture

ECHR European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms EIA environmental impact assessment

GCM general circulation model

GeoMIP Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project

GBEP Global Bioenergy Partnership

GHGs greenhouse gases

HRBA human rights-based approach

HRIA human rights impact assessment

ICCPR International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

ICESCR International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

INDC intended nationally determined contribution

IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

LDCs least developed countries

NETs negative emissions technologies

OHCHR Office of the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights

SAI sulphur aerosol injection

SBI Subsidiary Body for Implementation

SBSTA Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice

SRM solar radiation management

UDHR Universal Declaration of Human Rights

UNDP United Nations Development Programme

UNEP United Nations Environment Programme

UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNHRC United Nations Human Rights Council

WMO World Meteorological Organization

 

 

SYMBOLS

 

GtC gigatons carbon

GtCO2 gigatons carbon dioxide

µm micrometre

TgS teragrams sulphur   1Tg =1 Megatonne

W/m2 watts per square metre

 

 

 

 

REFERENCE

 

1

United Nations Human Rights Council [UNHRC], Human Rights and Climate Change, HRC Res 29/15, UNHRCOR, 29th Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/RES/29/15 (2 July 2015), online: . “Affirming that human rights obligations, standards and principles have the potential to inform and strengthen international, regional and national policymaking in the area of climate change”; UNHRC, Human Rights and Climate Change, HRC Res 26/27, UNHRCOR, 26th Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/ RES/26/27 (15 July 2014), online: . “Emphasizing that the adverse effects of climate change have a range of implications, both direct and indirect, for the effective enjoyment of human rights”; UNHRC, Human Rights and Climate Change, HRC Res 10/4, UNHRCOR, 10th Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/RES/10/4 (3 March 2009), online: . “Climate change-related impacts have a range of implications, both direct and indirect, for the effective enjoyment of human rights”; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [UNFCCC], The Cancun Agreements: Outcome of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention, FCCC Dec 1/CP.16, UNFCCC, 2010, UN Doc FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1 (2010), at para 8, online: [The Cancun Agreements]. Parties “should, in all climate change related actions, fully respect human rights”; Mary Robinson Foundation, Incorporating Human Rights into Climate Action, Version 1 (October 2014), at 4, online: . Forty-nine parties to the UNFCCC have made explicit references to human rights in their National Communications or National Adaptation Plans of Action.

 

2

UNFCCC, 9 May 1992, 1771 UNTS 107, 31 ILM 849 (entered into force 21 March 1994).

 

3

The Cancun Agreements, supra note 1 at para 8 [emphasis added]. While not explicitly referring to human rights impacts, the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC includes concordant language, providing that industrialized countries should strive to “minimize adverse social, environmental and economic impacts on developing country Parties” in terms of mitigation response measures. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 10 December 1997, 2303 UNTS 148, 37 ILM 22 art 3(14) (entered into force 16 February 2005) [Kyoto Protocol].

 

4

Kyoto Protocol, supra note 3.

 

5 

Adaptation Fund Board, Environmental and Social Policy (November 2013), at para 15

 

6

UNHRC, Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the relationship between climate change and human rights, 15 January 2009, UN Doc A/HRC/10/61 at para 75, online: .

 

7

UNFCCC, COP, Paris Agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 12 December 2015, Dec CP.21, 21st Sess, UN Doc FCCC/CP/2015/L9, online: [Paris Agreement].

 

8

Ibid, Preamble.

 

9

UNHRC, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment, 1 February 2016, 31st Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/31/52 at 6, online: .

 

10

Paris Agreement, supra note 7, Preamble

 

11

Basil Ugochukwu, Climate Change and Human Rights: How? Where? When?, CIGI, CIGI Papers No. 82, 27 November 2015 at 9. See also International Human Rights Law Clinic, Miller Institute for Global Challenges and the Law, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law & Center for Law & Global Justice, University of San Francisco, School of Law, “Protecting People and the Planet” (December 2009) at 7, online: .

 

12

The Royal Society, “Geoengineering the climate: science, governance and uncertainty (2009) at 11, online: .

 

13

Mason Inman, “Planning for Plan B” (17 December 2009) Nature Reports; Climate Change, online: ; Scott Barrett, “Solar Geoengineering’s Brave New World: Thoughts on the Governance of an Unprecedented Technology” (2014) 8:2 Rev Envtl Econ & Pol’y 249 at 266.

 

14

Robert L Olson, “Geoengineering for Decision Makers” (November 2011) Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars at 16, online: ; Toby Svoboda et al, “Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering: The Question of Justice” (2011) 25:3 Public Aff Q 157 at 165.

 

15

“A Charter for Geoengineering”, Editorial, (2012) 485 Nature 415 at 415; John Virgoe, “International Governance of a Possible Geoengineering Intervention to Combat Climate Change” (2009) 95 Climatic Change 103 at 119 [Virgoe].

 

16

Richard Owen, “Solar Radiation Management and the Governance of Hubris” (2014) 38 Issues in Environmental Science & Technology 212 at 220; Michael Burger & Jessica Wentz, Climate Change and Human Rights (2015) United Nations Environment Program [UNEP] at 10, online: .

 

17

Paris Agreement, supra note 7, art 2(1)(a).

 

18

See UNFCC, Report of the Conference of the Parties on its nineteenth session, held in Warsaw from 11 to 23 November 2013, Dec 1/ CP.19 Further advancing the Durban Platform, UN Doc FCCC/ CP/2013/10/Add.1 at para 2(b), online: [Durban Platform]; UNFCC, INDCs as communicated by Parties, online: .

 

19

Paris Agreement, supra note 7, art 4(2).

 

20

Joeri Rogelj et al, “Paris Agreement Climate Proposals Need a Boost to Keep Warming Well Below 2°C” (2016) 534 Nature 631 at 634; Climate Action Tracker, “Paris Agreement: stage set to ramp up climate action” (12 December 2015), online: ; World Resources Institute, “Why are INDC Studies Reaching Different Temperature Estimates?” (2015), online: . It should be emphasized that the Paris Agreement does provide for a “global stocktake” every five years “to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of this Agreement and its long-term goals,” with an eye to enhancing domestic and international commitments to meet the agreement’s overarching objectives, if necessary; Paris Agreement, supra note 7 at art 14. While this provision could help the parties to avoid passing the 2°C threshold, this would require strengthened commitments prior to the agreement entering in force and more ambitious long-term commitments; Wolfgang Obergassel et al, Phoenix from the Ashes — An Analysis of the Paris Agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (January 2016), online: Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy at 45. The world’s remaining “carbon budget” to avert passing the 2°C threshold may also be far lower than many current estimates given uncertainties about many critical parameters; Glen Peters, “The ‘Best Available Science’ to Inform 1.5°C Policy Choices” advance online publication: (11 April 2016) Nature Climate Change, DOI: <10.1038/nclimate3000>, online: www.nature.com/ nclimate/journal/vaop/ncurrent/pdf/nclimate3000.pdf at 1.

 

21

Carolyn W Snyder, “Evolution of Global Temperature Over the Past Two Million Years” (2016) Nature, doi: <10.1038/nature19798>: Even stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of GHGs at current levels could result in eventual warming of 5°C; Peter U Clark et al, “Consequences of Twenty-First Century Policy for Multi-Millennial Climate and Sea-Level Change” (2016) 6 Nature Climate Change 360 at 361.

 

22

UNFCCC, “Climate Change 2014, Synthesis Report, Summary for Policymakers” (2014), online: www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ ar5/syr/AR5_SYR_FINAL_SPM.pdf at 18, 19; Durban Platform, supra note 18; INDCs as Communicated by Parties, supra note 18; V Ramanathan & Y Feng, “On Avoiding Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference with the Climate System: Formidable Challenges Ahead” (2008) 105:3 Proceedings National Academy Sci 14245 at 14245

 

23

William CG Burns & Jane A Flegal, “Climate Geoengineering and the Role of Public Deliberation: A Comment on the US National Academy of Sciences’ Recommendations on Public Participation” (2015) 5 Climate L 252 at 254.

 

24

David G Victor, “On the Regulation of Geoengineering” (2008) 24:2 Oxford Rev Econ Pol’y 322 at 323. The concept of climatic geoengineering extends back to at least the 1830s when American meteorologist J. P. Espy suggested that lighting huge fires could stimulate convective updrafts and alter the intensity and frequency of precipitation. Philip J Rasch et al, “An Overview of Geoengineering of Climate Using Stratospheric Sulphate Aerosols” (2008) 366 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y 4,007 at 4,008. For a thorough historical treatment of weather and climate modification initiatives, see James Rodger Fleming, “The Pathological History of Weather and Climate Modification: Three Cycles of Promise and Hype” (2006) 37:1 Historical Stud in Physical Sci 3-25, online: 

 

25

Robin Gregory, Terre Satterfield & Ariel Hasell, “Using Decision Pathway Surveys to Inform Climate Engineering Policy Choices” (2016) 113 Proceedings Natl Acad Sci 560 at 560; Shinichiro Asayama, “Catastrophism Toward ‘Opening Up’ or ‘Closing Down’? Going Beyond the Apocalyptic Future and Geoengineering” (2015) 63:1 Current Sociology 89 at 90. For a history of geoengineering over the past 50 years, see Wil Burns & Simon Nicholson, “Governing Climate Geoengineering” in Simon Nicholson & Sikina Jinnah, eds, New Earth Politics (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2016) 345.

 

26

US, US House Committee on Science and Technology and a Recommendation by the Chair for a Geoengineering Research Agenda, “Engineering the Climate: Research Needs and Strategies for International Coordination” (October 2010), online: at ii; UK, HC, Science and Technology Committee, “The Regulation of Geoengineering: Fifth Report of Session 2009-10” (10 March 2010), online: at 27 [UK Science and Technology Committee].

 

27

UK Science and Technology Committee,supra note 26.

 

28

The parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity at the 9th meeting of the Conference of the Parties in 2008 passed a resolution calling on the parties “to ensure that ocean fertilization activities do not take place until there is an adequate scientific basis on which to justify such activities... with the exception of small scale scientific research studies within coastal waters.” UNEP, Convention on Biological Diversity, Decision adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity: IX/16 Biological diversity and climate change, UN Doc UNEP/ CBD/COP/DEC/IX/16 (May 2008) online: at para 4. For further information on ocean fertilization climate geoengineering, see Ocean Iron Fertilization, infra. In 2010, the parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, and its Protocol, passed a resolution adopting an assessment framework for scientific research in context of ocean fertilization: International Maritime Organization, Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, Resolution LC-LP.2 (2010) on the Assessment Framework for Scientific Research Involving Ocean Fertilization, Third-Second Consultative Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the London Convention and the Fifth Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the London Protocol (14 October 2010), online: at para 1; International Maritime Organization, Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, Assessment Framework for Scientific Research Involving Ocean Fertilization (2010), online: . In 2013, the parties to the London Protocol amended the agreement to make the risk assessment procedure legally binding on all of its parties, as well as to potentially extend the regulatory purview of the protocol to other marine-based geoengineering options: International Maritime Organization, London Protocol to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972, Resolution LP.4(8) on the Amendment to the London Protocol to Regulate the Placement of Matter for Ocean Fertilization and Other Marine Geoengineering Activities (2013), online: . 

 

29

Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, “European Transdisciplinary Assessment of Climate Engineering (EuTRACE)”, online: ; Eli Kintisch, Bill Gates Funding Geoengineering Research, Science (26 January 2010), Science, online: ; Cao Long et al, “Geoengineering: Basic Science and Ongoing Research Efforts in China” (2015) 6 Advances in Climate Change Research 188.

 

30

The Royal Society, supra note 12 at ix; National Research Council, US National Academy of Sciences, Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth (2015), online: www.nap.edu/catalog/18988/ climate-intervention-reflecting-sunlight-to-cool-earth at 6; National Research Council, US National Academy of Sciences, Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration (2015), online: www.nap.edu/catalog/18805/climate-intervention-carbondioxide-removal-and-reliable-sequestration at 107.

 

31

Adrian Cho, “To Fight Global Warming, Senate Calls for Study of Making Earth Reflect More Light, Science” (19 April 2016), online: . The bill, S 2084, inter alia, calls for the Department of Energy to study the US National Academy of Science’s 2015 Report on “albedo modification,” one of the two broad categories of climate geoengineering (see the section on Potential Risks Associated with Climate Geoengineering infra), and to “leverage existing computational and modeling capabilities to explore the potential impacts of albedo modification.” US, Bill S 2084, Energy and Water Development Appropriations Bill, 2017, 114th Cong, 2015-16.

 

32

IPCC, Working Group I Contribution on Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis (2013), online: www.climatechange2013. org/images/report/WG1AR5_ALL_FINAL.pdf at 29; IPCC, Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate, Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects (2014), online: at 92; IPCC, Working Group III Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change (2014), online: at 256.

 

33

Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change, supra note 32 at 41.

 

34

Suzanne Goldenberg, “UN Climate Science Chief: It’s Not Too Late to Avoid Dangerous Temperature Rise”, The Guardian, (11 May 2016), online: .

 

35

William CG Burns, “Geoengineering the Climate: An Overview of Solar Radiation Management Options” (2012) 46 Tulsa L Rev 283 at 286. Alternatively, some commentators divide climate geoengineering options into “short-wave” and “long-wave” approaches. See TM Lenton & NE Vaughan, “The Radiative Forcing Potential of Different Climate Geoengineering Options” (2009) 9 Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics 5539 at 5540. It should be emphasized, however, that some approaches denominated as “geoengineering,” including some carbon dioxide removal options, are closely akin to technologies for industrial carbon management, such as carbon capture and sequestration or land use, land use change and forestry, and, thus, might not be classified by everyone as “climate geoengineering.” Virgoe, supra note 15 at 104.

 

36

National Oceanographic & Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory, “The Earth’s Atmosphere”, online: .

 

37

J Feichter & T Leisner, “Climate Engineering: A Critical Review of Approaches to Modify the Global Energy Balance” (2009) 176 Eur Physical J 81 at 82.

 

38

Ibid; John T Hardy, Climate Change: Causes, Effects and Solutions (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2003) at 7.

 

39

Climate Central, “What is the greenhouse effect?” (7 November 2009), online: . Radiation from the sun peaks at a wavelength in the range of 0.4–0.7 µ, with small amounts of ultraviolet radiation down to 0.1 µ and small amounts of infrared radiation in the range of 3 µ. The earth, being much cooler, radiates energy at 15°C, with radiation emanation from ranges of 4–100 µ. Martin M Halmann & Meyer Steinberg, Greenhouse Gas Carbon Dioxide Mitigation (Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 1999) at 1

 

 

40

Hardy, supra note 38 at 8.

 

41

Julie Kerr Caspar, Changing Ecosystems: Effects of Global Warming (New York, NY: Facts on File, 2010).

 

42

Donald Kennedy & John A Riggs, eds, U.S. Policy and the Global Environment (Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute, 2000) at 11.

 

43

Carbon dioxide emissions, primarily linked to fossil fuel production, industrial processes and land-use change, have increased over 140 percent from pre-industrial levels. Methane emissions, with anthropogenic sources associated with ruminants, rice agriculture, fossil fuel exploitation, landfills and biomass burning, have increased 254 percent from pre-industrial levels. Nitrous oxide emissions have increased 121 percent from pre-industrial levels, with anthropogenic sources including soils, ocean, biomass burning, fertilizer use and industrial processes. Other anthropogenic GHGs contributing to warming include sulphur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons and halogenated gases, as well as hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons; World Meteorological Organization [WMO] & Global Atmosphere Watch (9 November 2015) 11 WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin (November 2015), online: . See also US Environmental Protection Agency, “Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data”, online: .

 

44

Rasmus E Benestad, “A Mental Picture of the Greenhouse Effect” (21 January 2016) Theoretical Applied Climatology 3, DOI: <10.1007/ s00704-016-1732-y>, online: .

 

45

Steve Connor, “Global warming: World already halfway towards threshold that could result in dangerous climate change, say scientists”, Independent (9 November 2015), online: .

 

46

Australia, Department of the Environment and Energy, “Enhanced Greenhouse Effect”, online: .

 

47

WMO, “Atmospheric Concentrations of the Greenhouse Gases that Cause Climate Change Continue to Rise”, online: .

 

48

JT Kiehl & Kevin E Trenberth, “Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget” (1997) 78:2 Bull American Meteorological Soc’y 197 at 198 (1997), online: . 

 

49

Michael C MacCracken, “Beyond Mitigation: Potential Options for Counter-Balancing the Climatic and Environmental Consequences of the Rising Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases” (2009), World Bank Policy Research Working Paper at 15, online: .

 

50

The Royal Society, supra note 12 at 23.

 

51

Ibid.

 

52

Ibid at 34. 

 

53

David P Keller, Ellias Y Feng & Andreas Oschlies, “Potential Climate Engineering Effectiveness and Side Effects During a High Carbon Dioxide-Emission Scenario” (25 February 2014) Nature Communications at 5–6, online: .

 

54

Lenton & Vaughan, supra note 35 at 5540.

 

55

Takanobu Kosugi, “Fail-Safe Solar Radiation Management Geoengineering” (2013) 18 Mitigation Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 1141 at 1142; Albert C Lin, “Balancing the Risks: Managing Technology and Dangerous Climate Change” (2009) 8(3) Issues in Leg Scholarship, art 2 at 4.

 

56

“Albedo is the fraction of incident sunlight that is reflected.” Albedo is measured on a 0–1 scale. If a surface absorbs all incoming sunlight, its albedo is 0; if it is perfectly reflecting, its albedo is 1. Arctic Coastal Ice Processes, Albedo, online: .

 

57

Philip Rasch, Written Testimony, US House Committee on Science and Technology Hearing, “Geoengineering IIe: The Scientific Basis and Engineering Challenges”, 4 February 2010, at 5, online: . There have also been suggestions of injecting preformed particles of other chemicals, e.g., titanium oxide, to effectuate more control over the process. Peter J Irvine et al, “An Overview of the Earth System Science of Solar Geoengineering” (2016) WIREs Climate Change at 7, DOI: <10.1002/2cc.423>.

 

58

J Hansen et al, “Earth’s Energy Imbalance and Implications” (2011) 11 Atmospheric Chemistry Physics 13421 at 13438.

 

59

Alan Robock et al, “Benefits, Risks and Costs of Stratospheric Geoengineering” (2009) 36 Geophysical Research Letters L19703 at  4–7.

 

60

MI Budyko, Climatic Changes, translated by Izmeniia Klimata (Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, 1977). “Sulfur in the stratosphere oxidizes via the reaction with the hydroxyl radical to sulfuric acid.... The sulfuric acid gas forms together with water vapor sulfate particles.... In the presence of aerosols sulfuric acid gas may condense onto pre-existing aerosol particles.” J Feichter & T Leisner, “Climate Engineering: A Critical Review of Approaches to Modify the Global Energy Balance” (2009) 176 Eur Physical J 81 at 86.

 

61

AV Eliseev, II Mokhov & AA Karpenko, “Global Warming Mitigation by Means of Controlled Aerosol Emissions into the Stratosphere: Global and Regional Peculiarities of Temperature Response as Estimated in IAP RAS CM Simulations” (2009) 22(4) Atmospheric Oceanic Optics 388 at 390. 1Tg = 1012 grams, or 1 million metric tons. Simone Tilmes, Rolf Müller & Ross Salawitch, “The Sensitivity of Polar Ozone Depletion to Proposed Geoengineering Schemes” (2008) 320 Science 1201 at 1202.

 

62

Philip J Rasch, Paul J Crutzen & Danielle B Coleman, “Exploring the Geoengineering of Climate Using Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosols: The Role of Particle Size” (2008) 35 Geophysical Research Letters L02809 at 3. “Injection of 1 Tg S/yr as small particles...reduces the warming equatorward of 40 degrees to <1K….” See also Paul J Crutzen, “Albedo Enhancement by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: A Contribution to Resolve a Policy Dilemma?” (2006) 77 Climatic Change 211 at 213. Stratospheric loading of 1-2 Tg S/yr required; Tom ML Wigley, “LowIntensity Geoengineering Should be Seriously Considered” (21 May 2008) Bull Atomic Scientists, online: www.thebulletin.org/web-edition/ roundtables/has-the-time-come-geoengineering. Peak load of 5 TgS/yr required between 2050 and 2060, declining back to zero by 2090.

 

63

Jason Blackstock, “Researchers Can’t Regulate Climate Engineering Alone” (2012) 486 Nature 159 at 159. 

 

64

Rasch et al, supra note 24 at 4010.

 

65

Ben Kravitz, “Climate Engineering with Stratospheric Aerosols and Associated Engineering Parameters” (2012) National Academy of Engineering at 29, online: .

 

66

Richard A Kerr, “Pollute the Planet for Climate’s Sake?” (2008) 315 Science 401 at 401.

 

67

John Latham et al, “Global Temperature Stabilization via Controlled Albedo Enhancement of Low-Level Maritime Clouds” (2008) 366 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y 3969 at 3970.

 

68

“Cloud condensation nuclei are a subset of the atmospheric aerosol population, which undergo rapid growth into cloud droplets at a specified supersaturation.” Gregory C Roberts et al, “Cloud Condensation Nuclei in the Amazon Basin: ‘Marine’ Conditions Over a Continent?” (2001) 28:14 Geophysical Research Letters 2807 at 2807.

 

69

Keith Bower et al, “Computations Assessment of a Proposed Technique for Global Warming Mitigation via Albedo-Enhancement of Marine Stratocumulus Clouds” (2006) 82:1-2 Atmospheric Research 328 at 329.

 

70

RD Borys, DH Lowenthal & MA Wetzel, “Chemical and Microphysical Properties of Marine Stratiform Cloud” (1998) 103 J Geophysical Research: Atmospheres No. D17 at 22,073; Alan Robock et al, “Studying Geoengineering with Natural and Anthropogenic Analogs” (2013) 121 Climatic Change 445 at 452.

 

71

Bower et al, supra note 69 at 329.

 

72

Andy Jones, John Latham & Michael H Smith, “Radiative Forcing Due to Modification of Marine Stratocumulus Clouds” National Center for Atmospheric Research at 1, online: www.mmm.ucar.edu/ people/latham/files/cloud_albedo_gcm_modelling_paper.pdf.

 

73

Lenton & Vaughan, supra note 35 at 5548; Philip Rasch, C-C (Jack) Chen & John Latham, “Global Temperature Stabilisation via Cloud Albedo Enhancement: Geoengineering Options to Respond to Climate Change” Response to National Academy Call, online: .

 

74

Oliver Morton, “Great White Hope” (2009) 458 Nature 1097 at 1099

 

75

Lenton & Vaughan, supra note 35 at 5548.

 

76

Stephen Salter, Graham Sortino & John Latham, “Sea-Going Hardware for the Cloud Albedo Method of Reversing Global Warming” (2008) 366 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y 3989 at 3994, 4004.

 

77

Morton, supra note 74.

 

78

Takanobu Kosugi, “Role of Sunshades in Space as a Climate Control Option” (2010) 67 Acta Astronautica 241 at 242.

 

79

The Royal Society, supra note 12 at 32.

 

80

Roger Angel, “Feasibility of Cooling the Earth with a Cloud of Small Spacecraft Near the Inner Lagrange Point (L1)” (2006) 103:46 Proceedings Nat’l Acad Sci 17184 at 17184.

 

81

Katharine Ricke et al, “Unilateral Engineering”, Non-technical Briefing Notes for a Workshop at the Council on Foreign Relations Washington DC, 5 May 2008 at 6, online: . The Lagrange L1 point is about 900,000 miles from the earth. The Royal Society, supra note 12 at 32. The plan, developed by Roger Angel at the University of Arizona, contemplates the production of approximately 15 trillion silicon discs about 60-70 centimeters across; the discs would be studded with holes that could scatter incoming light. David L Chandler, “Global Shades” (21 July 2007) New Science at 44. 

 

82

David W Keith, “Geoengineering the Climate: History and Prospect” (2000) 25 Annual Rev Energy & Environment 245 at 263.

 

83 

Ibid

 

84

B Govindasamy, K Caldeira & PB Duffy, “Geoengineering Earth’s Radiation Balance to Mitigate Climate Change from a Quadrupling of CO2 ” (2003) 37 Global & Planetary Change 157 at 167.

 

85

Angel, supra note 80 at 17,189.

 

86

Eric Bickel & Lee Lane, “An Analysis of Climate Engineering as a Response to Climate Change”, Copenhagen Consensus Center (2009) at 48, online: .

 

87

Daniel J Lunt, “Sunshades for Solar Radiation” in Tim Lenton & Naomi Vaughan, eds, Geoengineering Responses to Climate Change (New York, NY: Springer, 2013) 19.

 

88

Timothy Lenton, “The Global Potential for Carbon Dioxide Removal” (2014) in RM Harrison & RE Hester, eds, Geoengineering of the Climate System (Washington, DC: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014) 53.

 

89

Lenton & Vaughan, supra note 35 at 5540.

 

90

The Royal Society, supra note 12 at 34. SRM methods could begin returning temperatures back to pre-indusrial conditions “within a few years of deployment”.

 

91

P Ciasis et al, “Carbon and other Biogeochemical Cycles, in Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis Contribution of Working Group I to the First Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2013) at 546, online: .

 

92

Sabine Mathesius et al, “Long-Term Response of Oceans to CO2 Removal from the Atmosphere” (2015) 5 Nature Climate Change 1117 at 1117 (2015).

 

93

Lenton & Vaughan, supra note 35 at 5556

 

94

RS Lampitt et al, “Ocean Fertilization: A Potential Means of Geoengineering?” (2008) 366 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y 3919 at 3920. 

 

95

Sallie W Chisholm, Paul G Falkowski & John J Cullen, “Dis-Crediting Ocean Fertilization” (2001) 294 Science 309 at 309.

 

96

Michelle Allsopp, David Santillo & Paul Johnston, “A Scientific Critique of Ocean Iron Fertilization as a Climate Change Mitigation Strategy” (September 2007) Greenpeace Research Labs Technical Note 07/2007 at 5, online: .

 

97

Kenneth R Arrigo, “Marine Microorganisms and Global Nutrient Cycles” (2005) 437 Nature 349 at 355.

 

98

Sanjay K Singh et al, “Response of Bacterioplankton to Iron Fertilization of the Southern Ocean, Antarctica” (2015) Frontiers in Microbiology 1 at 2, DOI: <10.3389/fmicb.2015.00863>, online: ; Victor Smetacek et al, “Deep Carbon Export from a Southern Ocean Iron-Fertilized Diatom Bloom” (2012) 487 Nature 313 at 313. Such areas comprise approximately 20 percent of the surface ocean; Long Cao & Ken Caldeira, “Can Ocean Iron Fertilization Mitigate Ocean Acidification?” (2010) 99 Climatic Change 303 at 304.

 

99

Matthew Hubbard, “Barometer Rising: The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety as a Model for Holistic International Regulation of Ocean Fertilization Projects and Other Forms of Geoengineering” (2016) 40 Wm & Mary Envtl L & Pol’y Rev 591 at 598; Christine Bertram, “Ocean Iron Fertilization in the Context of the Kyoto Protocol and the Post-Kyoto Process” (2010), 8 Energy Pol’y 1130 at 1130.

 

100

V Melissa Eick, “A Navigational System for Uncharted Waters: The London Convention and London Protocol’s Assessment Framework on Ocean Iron Fertilization” (2010) 46 Tulsa L Rev 351 at 357; Victor Smetacek & SWA Maqvi, “The Next Generation of Iron Fertilization Experiments in the Southern Ocean” (2008) 366 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y 3947 at 3956; F Joos, JL Sarmiento & U Siegenthaler, “Estimates of the Effect of Southern Ocean Fertilization on Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations” (2001) 349 Nature 772 at 773.

 

101

Ciasis et al, supra note 91 at 551.

 

102

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, “Scientific Synthesis of the Impacts of Ocean Fertilization on Marine Biodiversity” (2009) CBD Technical Series No 45 at 22, online: . See also US Government Accountability Office, Center for Science, Technology and Engineering, “Climate Engineering” Technology Assessment (July 2011) at 29, online: .

 

103

Alisher Mirzabaev et al, “Bioenergy, Food Security and Poverty Reduction” (July 2014) Center for Development Research, University of Bonn, Working Paper No 135 at 11; Venkatesh Balan, “Current Challenges in Commercially Producing Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass” (2014) 12 Intl Scholarly Research Notices: Biotechnology 1 at 4–5; Ayhan Demirbas, “Bioenergy, Global Warming, and Environmental Impacts” (2010) 26 Energy Sources 225 at 226.

 

104

Steve Rackley, Carbon Capture and Storage (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009) at 21.

 

105

Joris Kornneeff et al, “Global Potential for Biomass and Carbon Dioxide Capture, Transport and Storage up to 2050” (2012) 11 Intl J Greenhouse Gas Control 117 at 118

 

106

US Environmental Protection Agency, “Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration”, online: ; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (2005) “Special Report: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage” 195–307, online: . Terrestrial storage options include depleted reservoirs for oil and gas and deep saline aquifers: Ben Caldecott, Guy Lomax & Mark Workman, “Stranded Carbon Assets and Negative Emissions Technologies” (February 2015) Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford, Working Paper at 18, online: 

 

107

Rowan Oloman, “Carbon Recycling: An Alternative to Carbon Capture and Storage” (August 2009) 236:8 Pipeline & Gas J, online: ; Alexandra B Klass & Elizabeth J Wilson, “Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Identifying and Managing Risks” (2009) 8:3 Art 1 Issues in Leg Scholarship 1 at 6, online: ; Peter Maloney, “General Electric Seeks to Capture CO2 for Storage, Utility Dive”, 12 March 2016, online: .

 

108

T Gasser et al, “Negative Emissions Physically Needed to Keep Global Warming Below 2°C” (2015) 6 Nature Communications Art No 7958 at 2; UK Parliament, Parliamentary Office of Science & Technology, “Negative Emissions Technologies” (October 2013) POSTnote 447 at 1, online: .

 

109

C Gough & NE Vaughan, “Synthesizing Existing Knowledge on the Feasibility of BECCS” (February 2015) AVOID2 at 5, online: .

 

110

IPCC, Fifth Assessment Report, Working Group III, Ch 6, “Assessing Transformation Pathways” at 93; Etsushi Kato & Yoshiki Yamagata, “BECCS Capability of Dedicated Bioenergy Crops under a Future Land-Use Scenario Targeting Net Negative Carbon Emissions” (2014) 2 Earth’s Future 421 at 421. “Of the 400 [IPCC] scenarios that have a 50% or better chance of no more than 2°C warming…344 assume the successful and large-scale uptake of negative-emission technologies;” Kevin Anderson, “Duality in Climate Science” (2015) 8 Nature Geoscience 989 at 989 .

 

111

Gasser et al, supra note 108 at 5. See also José Roberto Moreira et al, “BECCS Potential in Brazil: Achieving Negative Emissions in Ethanol and Electricity Production Based on Sugar Cane Bagasse and Other Residues” (2016) 179 Applied Energy 55 at 56; BECCS “will play a vital role in reaching the required level of emission reductions in the future.” Sabine Fuss, “Betting on Negative Emissions” (2014) 4 Nature Climate Change 850 at 850.

 

112

There are currently 15 pilot-scale BECCS plants globally; Gough & Vaughan, supra note 109 at 20. And the first large-scale BECCS plant is due to begin operation in 2016; Global CCS Institute, Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Project, online: .

 

113

Caldecott, Lomax & Workman, supra note 106 at 19, 22.

 

114

Andrew Wiltshire & T Davies-Barnard, “Planetary Limits to BECCS Negative Emissions” (March 2015) AVOID2 at 15, online: .

 

115

Robert B Jackson, “Reaching Peak Emissions” (January 2016) 6 Nature Climate Change 7 at

 

116

Robert Socolow et al, “Direct Air Capture of CO2 with Chemicals” (2011) American Physical Society at 7–9, online: . Other potential capture methods include mineral capture by water of crystallization or hydroxyl cation cycles; R Stuart Haszeldine, “Can CCS and NET Enable the Continued Use of Fossil Carbon Fuels after CoP21?” (2016) 32:2 Oxford Rev Econ Pol’y 304 at 310.

 

117

Marianne Lavelle, “Out of Thin Air: The Quest to Capture Carbon Dioxide” (12 August 2011) National Geographic, online: .

 

118

Duncan McClaren, “Capturing the Imagination: Prospects for Direct Air Capture as a Climate Measure” (25 March 2014) Geoengineering our Climate? Ethics, Politics and Governance, Case Study at 1-2, online: .

 

119

See supra note 107. See also David W Keith, Kenton Heidel & Robert Cherry, “Capturing CO2 from the Atmosphere: Rationale and Process Design Considerations” in B Launder & M Thompson, eds, Geo-Engineering Climate Change: Environmental Necessity or Pandora’s Box (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010) 125, online: ; Eli Kintisch, “Can Sucking CO2 Out of the Atmosphere Really Work?” (7 October 2014) MIT Tech Rev, online: .

 

120

Manya Ranjan & Howard J Herzog, “Feasibility of Air Capture” (2011) 4 Energy Procedia 2869 at 2870; David Keith, “Why Capture CO2 from the Atmosphere?” (2009) 325 Science 1654 at 1655.

 

121

Caldecott, Lomax & Workman, supra note 106 at 7.

 

122

Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth, supra note 30 at 75.

 

123 

Caldecott, Lomax & Workman, supra note 106 at 22.

 

124

Socolow et al, supra note 116 at i; Ranjan & Herzog, supra note 120 at 2875. 

 

125

Xiaoyang Shi, “Capture CO2 from Ambient Air Using Nanoconfined Iron Hydration” (2016) 128 Angewandte Chemie 4094 to 97; Chen & Massimo Tavoni, “Direct Air Capture of CO2 and Climate Stabilization: A Model Based Assessment” (2013) 118 Climatic Change 59 at 60; Geoffrey Holmes & David W Keith, “An Air-Liquid Contractor for Large-Scale Capture of CO2 from Air” (2012) 370 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y A 4380–4403.

 

126

Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth, supra note 30 at 75.

 

127

Cao Long, Gao Chao-Chao & Zhao Li-Yun, “Geoengineering: Basic Science and Ongoing Research Efforts” (2015) 6 Advances in Climate Change Research 188 at 190; Alan Robock, “Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering” (2015) AIP Conference Proceedings 1652 at 190.

 

128

Angus J Ferraro & Hannah G Griffiths, “Quantifying the temperatureindependent effect of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on global-mean precipitation in a multi-model ensemble” (2016) 11 Envtl Research Letters 1 at 16 (2016), online: .

 

129

H Damon Matthews & Ken Caldeira, “Transient Climate-Carbon Simulations of Planetary Geoengineering” (2007) 104 Proceedings Natl Acad Sci 9949 at 9951.

 

130

H Schmidt et al, “Solar Irradiance Reduction to Counteract Radiative Forcing from a Quadrupling of CO2 : Climate Responses Simulated by Four Earth System Models” (2012) 3 Earth Systems Dynamics 63 at 72.

 

131

U Niemeier, “Solar Irradiance Reduction via Climate Engineering: Impact of Different Techniques on the Energy Balance and the Hydrological Cycle” (2013) 118 J Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 11,095 at 11,915.

 

132

The Royal Society, supra note 12 at 31. 

 

133

Holly Jean Buck, “Geoengineering: Re-Making Climate for Profit or Humanitarian Intervention?” (2011) 43:1 Development & Change 253 at 255.

 

134

Massimo A Bollasina, Yi Ming & V Ramaswamy, “Anthropogenic Aerosols and the Weakening of the South Asian Summer Monsoon” (2011) 334 Science 502 at 502.

 

135

Pablo Suarez, “Geoengineering and the Humanitarian Challenge: What Role for the Most Vulnerable?” (13 August 2013) Geoengineering our Climate, Opinion Article at 3, online: 

 

136

Jim M Haywood et al, “Asymmetric Forcing from Stratospheric Aerosols Impacts Sahelian Rainfall” (2013) 3 Nature Climate Change 660 at 663.

 

137

Kravitz, supra note 65.

 

138

Eliseev, Mokhov & Karpenko, supra note 61 at 390

 

139

Kevin Bullis, “The Geoengineering Gambit” (21 December 2009) MIT Technology Rev, online: . See also Gabriele C Hegerl & Susan Solomon, “Risks of Climate Engineering” (2009) 325 Science 955 at 955.

 

140

G Bala, PB Duffy & KE Taylor, “Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Global Hydrological Cycle” (2008) 105:22 Proceedings Natl Acad Sci 7664 at 7664. 

 

141

CJ Gabriel & A Robock, “Stratospheric Geoengineering Impacts on El Niňo/Southern Oscillation” (2015) 15 Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions 9173 at 9187.

 

142

Simon Tilmes et al, “The Hydrological Impact of Geoengineering in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)” (2013) 118 J Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 11,036 at 11,037.

 

143

DJ Lunt et al, “‘Sunshade World:’ A Fully Coupled GCM Evaluation of the Climate Impacts of Geoengineering” (2008) 35 Geophysical Research Letters 1 at 4.

 

144

Andy Jones, Jim Haywood & Olivier Boucher, Climate Impacts of Geoengineering Marine Stratocumulus Clouds (2009) 114 J Geophysical Research 1 at 5, D10106.

 

145

The Royal Society, supra note 12 at 33

 

146

Lunt et al, supra note 143 at 4; U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Science and Technology, 111th Cong, Engineering the Climate: Research Needs and Strategies for International Coordination (2010) Serial No. 111-A at 42. Lunt et al contend that regional declines in precipitation in a “sunshade world” would not, however, likely adversely crop production because lowered surface temperatures would lead to a decline in temperatures and a small increase in soil moisture. 

 

147

Ken Caldeira & Lowell Wood, “Global and Arctic Climate Engineering: Numerical Model Studies” (2009) 366 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y A 4039 at 4050.

 

148

Center for International Earth Science Information Network, The Relationship of Skin Cancer Prevalence and the Increase in Ultraviolet-B Exposure Due to Ozone Depletion, online: ; WJM Martens et al, “The Impact of Ozone Depletion on Skin Cancer Incidence: An Assessment of the Netherlands and Australia” (1996) 1 Envtl Modeling & Assessment 229–40.

 

149

Arjan van Dijk et al, “Skin Cancer Risks Avoided by the Montreal Protocol—Worldwide Modelling Integrating Coupled ClimateChemistry Models with a Risk Model for UV” (2013) 89 Photochemistry & Photobiology 234 at 234. See also MP Chipperfield et al, “Quantifying the Ozone and Ultraviolet Benefits of Already Achieved by the Montreal Protocol” (2014) 6 Nature Communications 1 at 8, DOI: <10.1038/ncomms8233>

 

150

DK Weisenstein, DW Keith & JA Dykema, “Solar Geoengineering Using Solid Aerosol in the Stratosphere” (2015), 15 Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics 11835 at 11846; FD Pope et al, “Stratospheric Aerosol Particles and Solar-Radiation Management” (2012) 2 Nature Climate Change 713 at 715

 

151

UNEP, Ozone Secretariat, Synthesis of the 2014 Reports of the Scientific, Environmental Effects, and Technology & Economic Assessment Panels of the Montreal Protocol (2014) at 5, online: .

 

152

Simone Tilmes, Rolf Müller & Ross Salawitch, “The Sensitivity of Polar Ozone Depletion to Proposed Geoengineering Schemes” (2008) 320 Science 1201 at 1204.

 

153

P Heckendorn et al, “The Impact of Geoengineering Aerosols on Stratospheric Temperature and Ozone” (2009) 4 Envtl Research Letters 1 at 7.

 

154

Tilmes, Müller & Salawitch, supra note 152 at 1203. Stratospheric ozone depletion increased in the Arctic after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo released 20 Mt. of SO2 into the stratosphere in 1991; Tilmes et al, supra note 142 at 11,037. It was estimated that the global column ozone loss after Mt. Pinatubo was 2.5 percent, while the loss after the eruption of El Chicón in 1982 was approximately 16 percent; Paul Crutzen, “Albedo Enhancement by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: A Contribution to Resolve a Policy Dilemma” (2006) 77 Climatic Change 211 at 215.

 

155

Seth D Baum, “The Great Downside Dilemma for Risky Emerging Technologies” (2014) 89 Physica Scripta 1 at 4; Andrew Ross and H Damon Matthews, “Climate Engineering and the Risk of Rapid Climate Change” (2009) 4 Envtl Research Letters 1 at 5.

 

156

H Damon Matthews & Ken Caldeira, “Transient Climate-Carbon” (2007) 104:2 Proceedings Natl Acad Sci 9951

 

157

B Govindasamy et al, “Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Terrestrial Biosphere” (2002) 29:22 Geophysical Research Letters 18-1 at 18-3.

 

158

Peter G Brewer, “Evaluating a Technological Fix for Climate” (2007) 104:24 Proceedings Natl Acad Sci 9915 at 9915. See also Niemeier, supra note 131 at 11,916; JC Moore, S Jevrejeva & A Grinstad, “Efficacy of Geoengineering to Limit 21st Century Sea-Level Rise” (2010) 107:36 Proceedings Natl Acad Sci 15,699–15,703.

 

159

Victor Brovkin et al, “Geoengineering Climate by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: Earth System Vulnerability to Technological Failure” (2009) 92 Climatic Change 243 at 254.

 

160

Eli Kintisch, “Scientists Say Continued Warming Warrants Closer Look at Drastic Fixes” (2007) 318 Science 1054 at 1055.

 

161

Ibid.

 

162

Ibid. See also Andrew Ross & H Damon Matthews, “Climate Engineering and the Risk of Rapid Climate Change” (OctoberDecember 2009) 4 Envtl Research Letters 045103, online: . “It seems likely that two decades of very high rates of warming would be sufficient to severely stress the adaptive capacity of many species and ecosystems, especially if preceded by some period of engineered climate stability.”

 

163

A Vliet & R Leemans, “Rapid Species’ Response to Changes in Climate Require Stringent Climate Protection Targets” (2006) Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change at 135–41.

 

164

R Leemans & B Eickhout, “Another Reason for Concern: Regional and Global Impacts on Ecosystems for Different Levels of Climate Change” (2004) 14 Global Envtl Change: Human Pol’y Dimensions 219–228.

 

165

William CG Burns, “Climate Geoengineering: Solar Radiation Management and its Implications for Intergenerational Equity” (2011) 4 Stanford JL Science & Pol’y 37 at 46-9, online: ; Brewer, supra note 158 at 9915; Kintisch, supra note 160 at 1055.

 

166

Andy Jones et al, “The Impact of Abrupt Suspension of Solar Radiation Management (Termination Effect) in Experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)” (2013) 118 J Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 9743 at 9749.

 

167

Ibid. 

 

168  

CROZEX, online: .

 

169

Lampitt et al, supra note 94 at 3925.

 

170

John J Cullen & Philip W Boyd, “Predicting and Verifying the Intended and Unintended Consequences of Large-Scale Ocean Iron Fertilization” (2008) 364 Marine Ecology Progress Series 295 at 300.

 

171

Randall S Abate & Andrew B Greenlee, “Sowing Seeds Uncertain: Ocean Iron Fertilization, Climate Change, and the International Environmental Framework” (2010) 27 Pace Envtl L Rev 555 at 567; Kenneth L. Denman, “Climate Change, Ocean Processes and Ocean Iron Fertilization” (2008), 225 Marine Ecol Progress Series 219 at 223

 

172

Rosemary Rayfuse, Mark G Lawrence & Kristina M Gjerde, “Ocean Fertilisation and Climate Change: The Need to Regulate Emerging High Seas Uses” (2008) 23 Marine & Coastal L 297 at 306. See also P Falkowski, RT Barber & V Smetacek, “Biogeochemical Controls and Feedbacks on Ocean Primary Production” (1998) 381 Science at 200–206.

 

173

V Smetacek & SWA Naqvi, “The Next Generation of Iron Fertilization Experiments in the Southern Ocean” (2008) 366 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y A 3947 at 3962.

 

174

Jennie Dean, “Iron Fertilization: A Scientific Review with International Policy Recommendations” (2009) 32:2 Environs 322 at 330.

 

175

Christine Bertram, “Ocean Iron Fertilization in the Context of the Kyoto Protocol and the Post-Kyoto Process” (2010) 38 Energy Pol’y 1130 at 1131; Patricia M Gilbert et al, “Ocean Urea Fertilization for Carbon Credits Poses High Ecological Risks” (2008) 56 Marine Pollution Bull 1049 at 1051.

 

176

Cullen & Boyd, supra note 170 at 299; Dean, supra note 174 at 330.

 

177

Quirin Schiermeier, “Dumping Iron at Sea Does Sink Carbon” (18 July 2012) Nature, online: ; Charles G Trick et al, “Iron Enrichment Stimulates Toxic Diatom Production in High-Nitrate, Low-Chlorophyll Areas” (2010) 107:13 Proceedings Natl Acad Sci 5887 at 5891.

 

178

X Jin et al, “The Impact of Atmospheric CO2 of Iron Fertilization Induced Changes in the Ocean’s Biological Pump” (2008) 5 Biogeosciences 390–92.

 

179

A Oschlies et al, “Side Effects and Accounting Aspects of Hypothetical Large-Scale Southern Ocean Iron Fertilization” (2010) 7 Biogeosciences 4017 at 4026.

 

180

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, “How Will Ocean Acidification Impact Marine Line” (3 February 2015), online: ; William CG Burns, “Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Ocean Acidification: The Potential Impacts on Ocean Biodiversity”, in Robert A Askins et al, eds, Saving Biological Diversity (New York: Springer, 2008) at 190–95. 

 

181

Pete Smith et al, “Biophysical and Economic Limits to Negative CO2 Emissions” (2016) 6 Nature Climate Change 42 at 46. See also Phil Williamson, “Scrutinize CO2 Removal Methods” (2016) 530 Nature 153 at 154; Markus Bonsch et al, “Trade-offs Between Land and Water Requirements for Large-Scale Bioenergy Production” (2014) 8 GCB Bioenergy 11 at 11.

 

182

Smith et al, supra note181 at 42.

 

183

Ibid at 46

 

184

Caldecott, Lomax & Workman, supra note 106 at 16.

 

185

Ibid. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, “Biofuels and Biodiversity” (2012) CBD Technical Series No 65 at 9, online: ; Committee on the Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels et al, “Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels in the United States” (2012) at 157–202, online: . Moreover, some studies have even suggested that lignocellulosic biofuels might require more land than first generation biofuels.

 

186

Scott Barrett, “Solar Geoengineering’s Brave New World: Thoughts on the Governance of an Unprecedented Technology” (2014) 8:2 Rev Envtl Econ 249 at 254.

 

187

UN Office of the High Commissioner, Mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, Note on the Impacts of the EU Biofuels Policy on the Right to Food, 23 April 2013, online: ; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Working Group III – Mitigation of Climate Change, “Addressing Transformation Pathways”, Fifth Assessment Report (2014) at 91, online: ; US Government Accounting Office, Center for Science, Technology, and Engineering, Climate Engineering 25 (2011), online: . 

 

188

Actionaid, Caught in the Net: How The ‘Net-Zero Emissions’ Will Delay Real Climate Action and Drive Land Grabs (June 2015) at 7, online: . Some studies have attributed 30 percent of grain price increases from 2000 to 2007 to demand for biofuels; Mark W Rosegrant, “Biofuels and Grain Prices: Impacts and Policy Responses” (2008) at 2, online: International Food Policy Research Institute.

 

189

Bamikole Amigun, Josephine Kaviti Musango & William Stafford, “Biofuels and Sustainability in Africa” (2011) 15 Renewable & Sustainable Energy Rev 1360 at 1362.

 

190

International Bar Association, IBA Presidential Task Force on Climate Change Justice and Human Rights, “Achieving Justice and Human Rights in an Era of Climate Disruption” (July 2014) at 183, online: .  

 

191

Oxfam International, “Climate Wrongs and Human Rights: Putting People at the Heart of Climate-Change Policy (2008) at 15–16. See also Center for Human Rights and Global Justice, Foreign Land Deals and Human Rights: Case Studies on Agricultural and Biofuel Investment (New York: NYU School of Law, 2010).

 

192

Hans Morten Haugen, “International Obligations and the Right to Food: Clarifying the Potentials and Limitations in Applying a Human Rights Approach When Facing Biofuels Expansion” (2012) 11 J Hum Rts 405 at 406.

 

193

Lorenzo Catula, Nat Dyer & Sonja Vermeulen,  “Fuelling Exclusion? The Biofuels Boom and Poor People’s Access to Land, International Institute for the Environment and Development and Food and Agriculture Organization” at 14, online: ; Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, supra note 185 at 56.

 

194

Actionaid, supra note 188 at 7. See also Evadné Grant & Onita Das, “Land Grabbing, Sustainable Development and Human Rights” (2015) 4:2 Transnatl Envtl L at 289–317; Lili Fuhr, The Myth of NetZero Emissions (10 December 2014), online: Heinrich Böll Foundation .

195

Prakash Kashwan, “The Politics of Rights-Based Approach in Conservation” (2013) 31 Land Use Pol’y 613 at 622.

 

196

Raphael Slade, Ausilio Bauen & Robert Gross, “Global Bioenergy Resources” (2014) 4 Nature Climate Change 99 at 100.

 

197

Rachel Smolker & Almuth Ernsting, “BECCS (Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage): Climate Saviour or Dangerous Hype?” (October 2012) at 8, online: Biofuelwatch ; Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, supra note 185 at 32.

 

198

Slade, Bauen & Gross, supra note 196 at 103

 

199

Lorenzo Cotula, Nat Dyer & Sonja Vermeulen, Fueling Exclusion? The Biofuels Boom and Poor People’s Access to Land (2008) at 14, online: International Institute for Environment and Development & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations .

 

200

Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco & Werner Doppler, “Bioenergy and Sustainable Development: The Dilemma of Food Security and Climate Change in the Brazilian Savannah” (2010) 14 Energy for Sustainable Dev 194 at 198.

 

201

Helmut Haberl et al, “Global Bioenergy Potentials from Agricultural Land in 2050: Sensitivity to Climate Change, Diets and Yields” (2011) 35 Biomass & Bioenergy 4753 at 4762.

 

202

Pete Smith, “Soil Carbon Sequestration and Biochar as Negative Emission Technologies” (2016) 22:3 Global Change Biology 1315 at 1321.

 

203

Smith et al, supra note 181 at 47.

 

204

Bonsch et al, supra note 181 at 12.

 

205

Vaibhav Chaturvedi et al, “Climate Mitigation Policy Implications for Global Irrigation Water Demand” (2015) 20 Mitigation & Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 389 at 404.

 

206

Lydia J Smith & Margaret S Torn, “Ecological Limits to Terrestrial Biological Carbon Dioxide Removal” (2013) 118 Climatic Change 89 at 92.

 

207

P Moutonnet, “Yield Response Factors of Field Crops to Deficit Irrigation,” FAO Corporate Document Repository at 3, online: . 

 

208

Holly Jean Buck, “Rapid Scale-Up of Negative Emissions Technologies Social Barriers and Social Implications,” (2016) Nature, DOI: <10.1007/s10584-016-1770-6> at 4; Kelsi Bracmort & Richard K Lattanzio, Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy (26 November 2013) at 12, online: Congressional Research Service .

 

209

Smith et al, supra note 181 at 46.

 

210 

Williamson, supra note 181 at 154.

 

211

Wiltshire & Davies-Barnard, supra note 114 at 15. See also Gough & Vaughan, supra note 109 at 15; Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, supra note 185 at 38.

 

212

Bonsch et al, supra note 181 at 20.

 

213

Williamson, supra note 181 at 154

 

214

OHCHR, Frequently Asked Questions on a Human Rights-Based Approach to Development Cooperation (2006), at 1, online: . See also Henry Shue, “Changing Images of Climate Change: Human Rights and Future Generations” (June 2014) 5 J Hum Rts & Envt 50 at 58.

 

215

Simon Caney, “Climate Change, Human Rights and Moral Thresholds” in Stephen Gardiner et al, eds, Climate Ethics (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2010) at 73–90, online: ; Frédéric Mégret, “Nature of Obligations” in Daniel Moeckli, Sangeeta Shah & Sandesh Sivakumaran, eds, International Human Rights Law, 2nd ed (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010) at 129.

 

216

Rainer Frost, “The Justification of Human Rights and the Basic Right to Justification: A Reflexive Approach” (2010) 120:4 Ethics 711 at 734.

 

217

Charles Jones, “The Human Rights to Subsistence” (2013) 30:1 J Applied Phil 57 at 5.

 

218

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 28 July 1951, 189 UNTS 137 (entered into force 22 April 1954), online: .

 

219

ICCPR, 19 December 1966, 999 UNTS 171 (entered into force 23 March 1976), online: .

 

220

ICESCR, 16 December 1966, 993 UNTS 3, 6 ILM 360 (entered into force 3 January 1976), online: .

 

221

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 21 December 1965, 660 UNTS 195 (entered into force 4 January 1969), online: .

 

222

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 18 December 1979, 13 UNTS 1249 (entered into force 3 September 1981), online: .

 

223

Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries (27 June 1989) (ILO No 169), 72 ILO Official Bull 59, 28 ILM 1382 (entered into force 5 September 1991), online: 

 

224

CRC, 20 November 1989, 1577 UNTS 3, 28 ILM 1456 (entered into force 2 September 1990), online: .

 

225

International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, 18 December 1990, UN Doc A/RES/45/158, 30 ILM 1517 (entered into force 1 July 2003), online: .

 

226

Convention on the Right of Persons with Disabilities, 13 December 2006, UN Doc A/RES/61/106, Annex 1 (entered into force 3 May 2008), online: .

 

227

OAS, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, OR OAS/Ser.L/V/I.4 Rev. 9 (2003), online: .

 

228

OAS, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, American Convention on Human Rights, 21 November 1969, OAS Treaty Series No 36, 1144 UNTS 123, 9 ILM 99 (entered into force 18 July 1978), online: .

 

229

OAS, General Assembly, Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 17 November 1988, OAS Treaty Series No 69, 28 ILM 156 (1989) (entered into force 16 November 1999), online: .

 

230

Council of Europe, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 4 November 1950, ETS 5, 213 UNTS 221 (entered into force 3 September 1953), reprinted in Yearbook on Human Rights for 1950 (New York: UN, 1952) at 418 [ECHR], online: .

 

231

Organization of African Unity, African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 27 June 1981, CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 ILM 58 (1982) (entered into force 21 October 1986), reprinted in Christof, Heyns, ed, Human Rights Law in Africa, vol 1 (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1996), online: .

 

232

League of Arab States, Arab Charter on Human Rights, 22 May 2004 (entered into force 15 March 2008), reprinted in (2005) 12 Intl Hum Rts Rep, online: 

 

233

Megan M Herzog, “Coastal Climate Change Adaptation and International Human Rights” in Randall S Abate, ed, Climate Change Impacts on Ocean and Coastal Law (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015) 593 at 599; Siobhán McInerney-Lankford, Mac Darrow & Lavanya Rajamani, “Climate Change: A Review of the International Legal Dimensions” (2011) at 21-5, online: The World Bank 

 

234

Susannah Wilcox, “A Rising Tide: The Implications of Climate Change Inundation for Human Rights and State Sovereignty” (2012) 9 Essex Hum Rts Rev 2 at 6.

 

235

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, GA Res 217A(III), UNGAOR, 3rd Sess, Supp No 13, UN Doc A/810 (1948), online: .

 

236

Declaration on the Right to Development, GA Res 128, UNGAOR, 41st Sess, Supp No 53, UN Doc A/RES/41/128 (1986), online: 

 

237

Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, GA Res 121, UNGAOR, 48th Sess, UN Doc. A/CONF.157/23; 32 ILM 1661 (1993), online: 

 

238

Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women, GA Res 203, UN Doc. A/CONF. 177/20 (1995) and A/CONF. 177/20/Add. 1 (1995), online: 

 

239

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, GA Res 295, UNGAOR, 61st Sess, Supp No 49, UN Doc A/RES/61/295, 46 ILM 1013 (2007), online: . 

 

240

ASEAN, ASEAN Human Rights Declaration, 18 November 2012, online: .

aichr.org/?dl_name=ASEAN-Human-Rights-Declaration.pdf

 

241

Vojin Dimitrijevic, “Customary Law as an Instrument for the Protection of Human Rights” (2006) ISPI Working Paper WP-7 at 8–12, online: .

 

242

Mirko Bagaric & Penny Dimopoulos, “International Human Rights Law: All Show, No Go” (2005) 4 J Hum Rts 3 at 3.

 

243

John Knox, “Climate Ethics and Human Rights” (2014) 5 J Hum Rts & Envt 22 at 25.

 

244

Ibid.

 

245

Elisabeth Caesens & Maritere Padilla Rodríguez, Climate Change and the Right to Food (Berlin: Heinrich Böll Stiftung, 2009) at 43, online: .

 

246

The World Bank & Nordic Trust Fund, Human Rights Impact Assessments: A Review of the Literature, Differences with Other Forms (February 2013) at 5, online: ; James W Nickel, “How Human Rights Generate Duties to Protect and Provide” (1993) 15 Hum Rts Q 77 at 80–81.

 

247

OHCHR, “International Human Rights Law” online: 

 

248

The World Bank & Nordic Trust Fund, supra note 246 at 4; United Nations, HRBA Portal, online: .

 

249

Renewing the United Nations: a programme for reform, GA Res 12, UNGAOR, 51st Sess, UN Doc A/RES/52/12 (1997) at paras 78, 79.

 

250

United Nations Millennium Declaration, GA Res 2, UNGAOR, 55th Sess, UN Doc A/Res/55/2 (2000), online: . The declaration’s pertinent provisions on human rights include a call for respect for “all internationally recognized human rights” (Sec V, para 24) and efforts to strengthen the capacity of states to protect human rights (Sec V, para 25)

 

251

Strengthening of the United Nations: an agenda for further change, UNGAOR, 57th Sess, UN Doc A/57/387 (2002) at paras 45–51.

 

252

See e.g. UDHR, supra note 235, art 25 (part of the right to an adequate standard of living); CRC, supra note 224; International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, supra note 229, art 25(f); Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, supra note 222, art 12; African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, supra note 231 (implicit in arts 4, 16, and 22).

 

253

ICESCR supra note 220, art 11(2).

 

254

OHCHR, supra note 6 at 9.

 

255 UNHRC, Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment 12: The Right to Adequate Food, 12 May 1999, UN Doc E/C/12/1999/5 at paras 3, 4, 13.

 

256

Ibid.

 

257

Royal Society, supra note 12.

 

258

Lili Xia et al, “Solar Radiation Management Impacts on Agriculture in China: A Case Study in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)” (2014) 119 J Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 8695 at 8706.

 

259

UDHR, supra note 235, art 25; Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, supra note 221, art 5(e)(iv); CRC, supra note 224, art 24; Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, supra note 222, arts 11(1)(5), 12, 14(2)(b); International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, supra note 225, arts 28, 43(e), 45(c); African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, supra note 231, art 16; Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, supra note 229, art 10; Constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO), 22 July 1946, 14 UNTS 185, Preamble.

 

260

OHCHR & World Health Organization, “The Right to Health: Fact Sheet No. 31” at 9, online: .

 

261

ICESCR, supra note 220, art 12.

 

262

UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 14: The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health, 11 August 2000, UN Doc E/C/12/2000/4, online: .

 

263

Ibid.

 

264

“The Right to Health: Fact Sheet No. 31”, supra note 260 at 25.

 

265

UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 14: The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health, supra note 262 at para 11.

 

266

See e.g. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, supra note 227, art 14(2); International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, supra note 226, art 28; CRC, supra note 224, arts 24, 27(e); International Labour Organization, Convention concerning Occupational Health Services, No 161, 25 June 1985, 71st ILC Sess (entered into force 17 February 1988) at art 5, online: ; Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights, supra note 229 at art 11(1); Arab Charter on Human Rights, supra note 232, art 39.

 

267

UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 15: The Right to Water, 20 January 2003, UN Doc E/C.12/2002/11 (2003) at paras 21, 23.

 

268

The Human Right to Water and Sanitation, GA Res 64/292, UNGAOR, 64th Sess, Supp No 49, UN Doc A/RES/64/292 (2010), online: .

 

269

UNHRC, Human Rights and Access to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation, 30 September 2010, UN Doc A/HRC/RES/15/9.

 

270

United Nations Human Rights, “The Right to Water: Fact Sheet No. 35” at 6, online: .

 

271

See e.g. Council of Europe, European Social Charter, 18 October 1961, 529 UNTS 89, ETS 35, online: ; American Convention on Human Rights, supra note 228 and the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights,supra note 231.

 

272

Supra notes 129–135 and accompanying text. 273 Caitlin G McCormack et al, “Key Impacts of Climate Engineering on Biodiversity and Ecosystems, with Priorities for Future Research” (2016) J Integrative Envtl Sci 1 at 12 (2016), online: . 274 UDHR, supra note 235, art 3. 275 ICCPR, supra note 219, art 6(1).

 

276 See e.g. Arab Charter on Human Rights, supra note 232 at art 5-6; Organization of African Unity, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, 11 July 1990, OAU Doc CAB/LEG/24.9/49 (entered into force 29 November 1999), art 5, online: ; ECHR, supra note 230, art 2; American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, supra note 227, art 1; American Convention on Human Rights, supra note 228, art 4. 

 

277

See e.g. Human Rights Act, 1998 (UK), c 42, Schedule 1, online: ; Constitution Act, 1982, being Schedule B to the Canada Act 1982 (UK), c 11, s 7, online: ; Paraguay’s Constitution of 1992 with Amendments Through 2011, art 4, online: ; The Constitution of India as of 9 November 2015, art 21, online: .

 

278

UNHRC, CCPR General Comment No. 6: Article 6 (Right to Life), 30 April 1982, art 6(1); UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment 14, supra note 262 at para 5 [UNHRC General Comment No. 6]. Indeed, some commentators argue that the right to life has jus cogens status. See BG Ramcharan, The Right to Life in International Law (Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1985).

 

279

UNHRC General Comment No. 6, supra note 278, art 6.

 

280

Valesquez Rodriquez Case (29 July 1988) Inter-Am Ct HR (Ser C) No 4 at 70 to 71; United Nations Environment Program & Center for International Environmental Law, UNEP Compendium on Human Rights and the Environment (2014), summarizing Budayeva and Others v. Russia (2008), Eur Ct HR App No 15339/0 at 85, online:

 

281

UNHRC General Comment No. 6, supra note 278, art 6; Randall S Abate, “Climate Change, the United States and the Impacts of Arctic Melting: A Case Study in the Need for Enforceable International Environmental Human Rights” (2007) 26:1 Fla A&M U Col L Scholarly Commons 4 at 11, online: ; Indigenous Community Sawhoyamaxa v. Paraguay (29 March 2006), 2006 Inter-Am Ct HR (Ser C) No 146 at para 153.

 

282

Supra notes 210–213 and accompanying text.

 

283

See the section titled “The Threat of a Termination Effect”, supra.

 

284

McCormack et al, supra note 273 at 18.

 

285

Ibid at 12.

 

286

Ibid; Lynn M Russell et al, “Ecosystem Impacts of Geoengineering: A Review for Developing a Science Plan” (2012) 41 Ambio 350 at 361.

 

287

UNHRC, supra note 9 at 9. 288 

 

 

288

Roubina Bassous/Ghattas, “Biodiversity and Human Rights from a Palestinian Perspective”, online: The Applied Research Institute – Jerusalem/Society ; Tim Hayward, “Biodiversity, Human Rights and Sustainability” (July 2001), online: Botanic Gardens Conservation International .

 

289 UDHR, supra note 235, art 25(1).

 

290

Ryan Hartzell C Balisacan, “Harmonizing Biodiversity Conservation and the Human Right to Livelihood: Towards a Viable Model for Sustainable Community-Based Ecotourism Using Lessons from the Donsol Whale Shark Project” (2012), 57 Ateneo LJ 423 at 438.

 

291

Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries, supra note 223, art 15(1); United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, supra note 239, art 8(2)(b).

 

292

Paris Agreement, supra note 7.

 

 

293

Margaux J Hall, “Advancing Climate Justice and the Right to Health Through Procedural Rights” (June 2014) 16(1) Health & Hum Rts 8 at 15. See also Ken Conca, An Unfinished Foundation (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2015) at 147. HRBAs’ value “does not come from formal affirmations of such synergies, or even from the articulation of obligations facing states. It comes, ultimately, from the empowerment of people.” 

 

294

Alessandra Lundström Sarelin, “Human Rights-Based Approaches to Development Cooperation, HIV/AIDS, and Food Security” (2007) 29:2 Hum Rts Q 460 at 479, online: . 

 

295

Damilolo S Olawuyi, “Advancing Climate Justice in International Law: An Evaluation of the United Nations Human Rights-Based Approach” (2016) 11:1 Fla A&M UL Rev 1 at 9.

 

296

Mariya Gromilova, “Revisiting Planned Relocation as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy: The Added Value of a Human RightsBased Approach” (2014) 10:1 Utrecht L Rev 76 at 91.

 

297

Stephen Turner, A Global Environmental Right (New York, NY: Routledge, 2014) at 29-30.

 

298

Aled Dilwyn Fisher, A Human-Rights Based Approach to Environment and Climate Change (March 2014), online: GI-ESCR Practitioner’s Guide ; Leslie London, “What Is a Human Rights Based Approach to Health, and Does It Matter?” (January 2008) 10:1 Health & Hum Rts 65–80, online: ; United Nations, HRBA Portal, “The Human Rights Based Approach to Development Cooperation: Toward a Common Understanding Among UN Agencies”, online: . Andrea Cornwall & Celestine Nyamu-Musembi, “Putting the ‘Rights-Based Approach’ to Development into Perspective” (2004) 25:8 Third World Q 1415–1437, online: .

 

299

International Human Rights Law Clinic, supra note 11 at 15; UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Human Displacement: A UNHCR Perspective (14 August 2009) at 11, online: 

 

300

The World Bank & Nordic Trust Fund, supra note 246 at 1.

 

301

Ibid.

 

302

A Neil Craik et al, Procedural Governance of Field Experiments in Solar Radiation Management (March 2015), IASS/CIGI Workshop Report at 10, online: . See also Case Concerning Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v Uruguay) [2010] ICJ Rep (20 April 2010) at paras 204, 205; environmental impact assessment required “where there is a risk that the proposed industrial activity may have a significant adverse impact in a transboundary context”. UNFCCC, supra note 2 at art 4(1) (f); parties to utilize processes such as EIAs to minimize impacts of projects to mitigate or adapt to climate change. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, Assessment Framework for Scientific Research Involving Ocean Fertilization, supra note 28 at 6-18. Convention on Biological Diversity, 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties, COP10 Decision X/33 (2010); requiring ex ante environmental assessment of any proposed small-scale geoengineering scientific research. State of Rhode Island, General Assembly, The Climate Geoengineering Act of 2016, House Bill 7578 (2016), online: ; proposed bill would, inter alia, require environmental impact assessment for geoengineering research with potential atmospheric impacts above a critical threshold.

 

303

OHCHR, Frequently Asked Questions on a Human Rights-Based Approach to Development Cooperation (2006) at 16, online: .

 

304

UNICEF, A Human Rights-Based Approach to Programming for Material Mortality Reduction in a South Asian Context (2003) at 25, online: 

 

305

Gaither de Beco, “Human Rights Indicators: From Theoretical to Practical Application” (2013) 5:2 J Hum Rts Prac 380 at 380.

 

306 United Nations Human Rights Instruments, “Report on Indicators for Promoting and Monitoring the Implementation of Human Rights” (6 June 2008) HRI/MC/2008/3 at 10–13, online: . Oliver De Schutter, “A Human Rights Approach to Trade and Investment Policies” (November 2008), online: Conference on Confronting the Global Food Challenge at 18

 

307

de Beco, supra note 305 at 383.

 

308

General circulation models seek to numerically simulate the response of the global climate system to perturbations, such as GHG emissions, or in the case of solar radiation management, interventions such as SAI, by representing pertinent physical processes in the atmosphere, oceans, cryosphere and land surfaces. The climate is depicted through a three-dimensional grid laid over the earth. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “What is a GCM?”, online: . See also B Geerts & E Linacre, “What are General Circulation Models?”, online: University of Wyoming .

 

309

Peter J Irvine, Andy Ridgwell & Daniel J Lung, “Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering Impacts” (2010) 37 Geophysical Research Letters L18702 at 1.

 

310

GeoMIP, “Welcome”, online: climate.envsci.rutgers.edu/GeoMIP/ index.html

 

311

Nick Pidgeon, “Deliberating Stratospheric Aerosols for Climate Geoengineering and the SPICE Project” (2013) 3 Nature Climate Change 451 at 454.

 

312

UNHRC, supra note 9 at 15.

 

313

UDHR, supra note 235, art 19.

 

314

ICCPR, supra note 219, art 19.

 

315

UNFCCC, supra note 2, art 6(a)(ii).

 

316

Paris Agreement, supra note 7, art 12.

 

317

Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, 25 June 1998, 2161 UNTS 447; 38 ILM 517 art 4(4) (entered into force 30 October 2001) [Aarhus Convention].

 

318

UNHRC, Report of the Independent Expert on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment, UNHRCOR, 25th Sess, U.N Doc A/HRC/25/53 (2013) at 9.

 

319

UDHR, supra note 235, art 21.

 

320

ICCPR, supra note 219, art 25; African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, supra note 231, art 13; American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, supra note 227, art 20; American Convention on Human Rights,supra note 228, art 23; Declaration on the Right to Development, A/RES/41/128, 4 December 1986, 97th Plenary Meeting, art 1(1), online: 

 

321

UNFCCC, supra note 2, art 6(a)(iii). See also UNFCCC, Report of the Conference of the Parties on its thirteenth session, held in Bali from 3 to 15 December 2007, 14 March 2008, UN Doc FCCC/CP/2007/6/Add.1, Decision 9/CP.13, Amended New Delhi Work Programme on Article 6 of the Convention, Annex, at para 15, online: .

 

322

Paris Agreement, supra note 7, art 12.

 

323

World Charter for Nature, GA Res 37/7, UNGAOR, 37th Sess, Supp No. 51, UN Doc A/37/51 (1982) at 17.

 

324

Aarhus Convention, supra note

 

317,

arts 3(2), 6. 

 

325

“In public communication, information is conveyed from the sponsors of the initiative to the public.... In public consultation, information is conveyed from members of the public to the sponsors of the initiative, following a process initiated by the sponsor. Significantly, no formal dialogue exists between individual members of the public and sponsors. The information elicited from the public is believed to represent currently help opinions on the topic in question.” Gene Rowe & Lynn J Frewer, “A Typology of Public Engagement Mechanisms” (2005) 30 Sci, Tech & Hum Values 251 at 254–55, online: 

 

326

Paul Anderson, “Which Direction for International Environmental Law?” (2015) 6:1 J Hum Rts & Envt 98 at 121.

 

327

Ibid. J Dryzek, “Ecology and Discursive Democracy” in M O’Connor, ed, Is Capitalism Sustainable? Political Economy and the Politics of Ecology (New York and London: Guilford Press, 1994) 176.

 

328

S Chambers, Reasonable Democracy: Jürgen Habermas and the Politics of Discourse (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003) 309.

 

329

J Bohman, Public Deliberation: Pluralism, Complexity, and Democracy (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2000) at 27.

 

330

Jason Chilvers, “Reflexive Engagement? Actors, Learning, and Reflexivity in Public Dialogue on Science and Technology” (2012) 35:3 Science Communications 283 at 287; P Macnaghten et al, “Responsible Innovation Across Borders: Tensions, Paradoxes and Possibilities” (2014) 1:2 J Responsible Innovation 191 at 194; Bronislaw Szerszynski & Maialen Galarraga, “Geoengineering Knowledge: Interdisciplinarity and the Shaping of Climate Engineering Research” (2013) 45 Envt & Planning A 2817 at 2819.

 

331

Burns, supra note 23 at 268, 269.

 

332

Holly Joan Buck, “Geoengineering: Re-Making Climate for Profit or Humanitarian Intervention?” (2012) 43 Dev & Change 253 at 268.

 

333 Ibid.

 

334

The Pew Charitable Trusts, “High Seas Environmental Assessments”, 15 March 2016, online: ; Neil Craik, The International Law of Environmental Impact Assessment (Campbridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008) 67; Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context, 25 February 1991, 1989 UNTS 310, 30 ILM 800 (entered into force 10 September 1997) at art 5(a), online: ; National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 USC § 4321 (1969) at §4332, online: ; National Wildlife Federation v. National Marine Fisheries Service (2016), 2016 WL 2353647 (Oregon Dist Ct) at 59; EC, Directive 2014/52/EU of the European Parliament and Council of 16 April 2014 amending Directive 2011/92/EU on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment, [2014] OJ L124/1 at art 5(1)(d), Annex IV.4.

 

335

Lee Lane, “Researching Solar Radiation Management as a Climate Policy Option” (5 November 2009), online: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research . See also Rob Bellamy, Jason Chilvers & Naomi E Vaughan, “Deliberative Mapping of Options for Tackling Climate Change: Citizens and Specialists ‘Open Up’ Appraisal of Geoengineering” (September 2014) Pub Understanding Sci 1 at 2; David G Victor et al, “The Geoengineering Option: A Last Resort Against Global Warming?” (March/April 2009) 88:2 Foreign Aff 64 at 66.

 

336

Joshua B Horton, “The Emergency Framing of Solar Engineering: Time for a Different Approach” (2015) 2:2 Anthropocene Rev 147 at 148; Sanna Joronen, “Climate Change and Ethics of Geoengineering – Implications of Climate Engineering Ethics” (2015) 32 Reports from the Department of Philosophy, University of Turku at 72-3, online: .

 

337

Black carbon is a constituent element of the combustion product known as soot. Indoor sources are primarily due to cooking with biofuels, including dung, wood and crop residue. The primary outdoor source is attributable to fossil fuel combustion (diesel and coal), open biomass burning and cooking with biofuels. V Ramanathan & G Carmichael, “Global and Regional Climate Changes Due to Black Carbon” (2008) 1 Nature Geoscience 221 at 221. Recent studies indicate that black carbon emissions are the second largest contributor to global warming, as much as 55 percent of the forcing associated with carbon dioxide. TC Bond, “Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific Assessment” (2013) 118 J Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 5380 at 5380: “Reducing Black Carbon, or Soot, May Be Fastest Strategy for Slowing Climate Change” (22 April 2008), IGSD/INECE Climate Briefing Note, online: . Measures to reduce black carbon that may prove highly cost-beneficial include the use of diesel particulate filters for diesel engines and industrial sources, as well as other industrial control technologies, widespread adoption of advanced cook stoves, and banning or reducing the burning of agricultural waste and fuel switching; Drew Shindell et al, “Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and Improving Health and Food Security” (2012) 335 Science 183 at 183; US Environmental Protection Agency, “Mitigating Black Carbon”, online: ; US Department of State, “The Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants” (6 February 2012), online: . Tropospheric ozone, precipitated by sunlight-driven oxidation of so-called ozone precursors, especially methane, exerts a substantial short-term greenhouse effect. UNEP, Near-Term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits: Actions for Controlling Short-Lived Climate Forcers vii (2011), online: . The primary methods to reduce tropospheric ozone involve reducing methane emissions; Environmental and Energy Study Institute, “Short-Lived Pollutants: Why are they Important?” (February 2013), online: . Methods to reduce methane emissions include diversion of waste into sanitary landfills or, for onsite power generation, capturing fugitive emissions from energy production and other sources, capturing emissions from livestock manure and intermittent aeration of flooded rice paddies; Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development, “Primer on Short-Lived Climate Pollutants” (February 2013), online: ; World Bank, “Integration of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants in World Bank Activities” (June, 2013), online: at 21.

 

338

UNEP, “Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone: Summary for Decision Makers” (February 2011) UN Doc UNEP/GC/26/INF/20 at 3, online: . See also Shindell et al, supra note 337 at 187–88; Almut Arneth et al, “Clean the Air, Heat the Planet?” (2009) 326 Science 672 at 672.

 

339

UNEP, supra note 338.

 

340 UNEP and WMO, “Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone” (2011), online: at 246.

 

341

Ibid.

 

342

Ibid. See alsoJianfei Peng et al, “Markedly Enhanced Absorption and Direct Radiative Forcing of Black Carbon Under Polluted Urban Environments” (2016) 113:16 Proceedings Natl Acad Sci 4266 at 4268, 4269.

 

343

Horton, supra note 336 at 150.

 

344

Michael Zürn & Stefan Schäfer, “The Paradox of Climate Engineering” (2013) 4:3 Global Pol’y 1 at 9.

 

345

Douglas G MacMartin, Ken Caldeira & David W Keith, “Solar Geoengineering to Limit the Rate of Temperature Change” (2014) 372 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y A 20140134 at 6–11; limiting magnitude and duration of deployment of SRM with objective of restricting decadal temperature increases to 0.1°C could reduce risks of adverse impacts, such as depletion of the ozone layer.

 

346

Takanobu Kosugi, “Fail-Safe Solar Radiation Management Geoengineering” (2013) 18 Mitigation Adaptation Strategies Global Change 1141 at 1159. See also S. Tilmes, B.M. Sanderson & B.C. O’Neill, “Climate Impacts of Geoengineering in a Delayed Mitigation Scenario,” Geophysical Research Letters (2016), DOI: <10.1002/2016GL070122>.

 

347

Methods to Monitor the Human Right to Adequate Food, Volume II (Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2008) at 38; Urban Jonsson, Human Rights Approach to Development Programming, (2003), online: UNICEF at 15.

 

348

United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Applying a Human Rights-Based Approach to Development Cooperation and Programming: A UNDP Capacity Development Resource (2006), online: at 8.

 

349

Maarten Immink & Margaret Vidar, “Monitoring the Human Right to Adequate Food at Country Level” in Gudmundur Alfredsson et al, eds, International Human Rights Monitoring Mechanisms, 2nd ed, (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill|Nijhoff, 2009) at 322.

 

350

Slade, Bauen & Gross, supra note 196 at 103.

 

351 Ibid. 

 

352

The Global Bioenergy Partnership Sustainability Indicators for Bioenergy (2011), online: Global Bioenergy Partnership www.globalbioenergy. org/fileadmin/user_upload/gbep/docs/Indicators/The_GBEP_ Sustainability_Indicators_for_Bioenergy_FINAL.pdf. See also Yoshiko Naiki, “Trade and Bioenergy: Explaining and Assessing the Regime Complex for Sustainable Bioenergy” (2016) 27:1 Eur J Intl L 129 at 142–44.

 

353

UNHRC, Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the relationship between climate change and human rights, 15 January 2009, UNHRCOR, 10th Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/10/61, online: ; Gromilova, supra note 296 at 91. 

 

354

For example, the International Council on Human Rights Policy has also advocated application of an HRBA in the context of climate change policymaking; International Council on Human Rights Policy, Climate Change and Human Rights: A Rough Guide 9 (2008), online: .

 

355

Center for International Environmental Law, Human Rights and Climate Change: Practice Steps for Implementation (2009), online: at 1–32.

 

356

Naomi Roht-Arriaza, “Human Rights in the Climate Change Regime” (2010) 1:2 J Hum Rts & Envt 211 at 232.

 

357

UNFCCC, supra note 2, art 10(1).

 

358 Ibid, art 9(1).

 

359 Ibid, art 9(2)(b).

 

360

Kyoto Protocol, supra note 3 at art 15(1); Paris Agreement, supra note 7 at art 18(1).

 

361 Ibid.

 

362

UNFCCC, “Forum on the impact of the implementation of response measures”, online: .

 

363 Ibid.

 

364

UNFCCC, Report of the Conference of the Parties on its twenty-first session, held in Paris from 30 November to 13 December 2015, 29 January 2016, UN Doc FCCC/CP/2015/10/Add.2, Dec 11/CP.21, Forum and Work Programme on the Impact of Implementation of Response Measures, online: .

 

365

Center for International Environmental Law, supra note 355 at 29.

 

366

See note 354 and accompanying text. Another alternative would be to establish an expert group on human rights. While such groups are composed of experts acting in their personal capacity and don’t have the same status as the official Subsidiary Bodies of the UNFCCC, they could provide the parties with some guidance, as does the least developed countries (LDCs) Expert Group, which supports developing countries in the preparation of their National Adaptation Programs of Action. UNFCCC, LDC Expert Group, online: . 

 

367

Paris Agreement, supra note 7, art 13(4).

 

368

Mary Robinson Foundation, supra note 1 at 7.

 

369

Center for International Environmental Law & CARE International, Climate Change: Tackling the Greatest Human Rights Challenge of Our Time (2015), online: at 10.

 

370

Stephen M Gardiner, “The Desperation Argument for Geoengineering” (2013) 46:1 Political Science & Politics 28 at 29.

 

371

See notes 245–248 and accompanying text.

 

372

Edward Cameron & Marc Limon, “Restoring the Climate by Realizing Rights: The Role of the International Human Rights System” (2012) 21 RECEIL 204 at 212.

 

373

Marc Limon, “Human Rights and Climate Change: Constructing a Case for Political Action” (2009) 33 Harv Envtl L Rev 439 at 458. See also Sigrun I Skogly, “Extra-National Obligations Towards Economic and Social Rights” (2002) International Council on Human Rights Policy, Council Meeting, Background Paper, online: at 1.

 

374

McInerney-Lankford, supra note 233 at 40.

 

375 Ibid.

 

376

Beth van Schaack, “The United States’ Position on the Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights Obligations: Now is the Time for Change” (2014) 90 Intl L Stud 20 at 25.

 

377

UDHR, supra note 235, art 30. 378 ICESCR, supra note 220, art 2(1) [emphasis added].

 

379

General Comment 12, supra note 255 at paras 36–42.

 

380

General Comment 14, supra note 262 at para 39.

 

381

American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, supra note 227 at Preamble [emphasis added]. 382 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No 5 (2003): General measures of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 27 November 2003, 34th Sess, UN Doc CRC/ GC/2003/5 at para 7, online: .382 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No 5 (2003): General measures of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 27 November 2003, 34th Sess, UN Doc CRC/ GC/2003/5 at para 7, online:

 

 

 

382

UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No 5 (2003): General measures of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 27 November 2003, 34th Sess, UN Doc CRC/ GC/2003/5 at para 7, online: .

 

383

ICCPR, supra note 219, art 2(1) [emphasis added].

 

384

Rolf Künnemann, “Extraterritorial Application of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” in Fons Coomans & Menno T Kamminga, eds, Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights Treaties (Cambridge, UK: Intersentia, 2004) at 201, 222–229; van Schaack, supra note 376 at 28–29.

 

 

385

Charter of the United Nations, 26 June 1945, Can TS 1945 No 7, art 55(c), online: .

 

 

386

Ibid, art 56. See also ibid, art 1(3). Among the purposes of the United Nations are “to achieve international cooperation...in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights....”

 

387

Maastricht Principles on Extraterritorial Obligations in the Area of Economic, Social and Political Rights, ETOs for Human Rights Beyond Borders (2013), online: 

 

388 Ibid, s I.3.

 

389 Ibid, s II.9(a).

 

390 Ibid, s II.9(b).

 

391 Ibid, s II.9(c).

 

392

Emily A Mok, “International Assistance and Cooperation for Access to Essential Medicines” (2010) 12 Health & Hum Rts 73 at 76, online: 

 

393

Sigrun Skogly, Beyond National Borders: States’ Human Rights Obligations in International Cooperation (Cambridge, UK: Intersentia, 2006) 66. See also Limon, supra note 373 at 454. 

 

394

M Carmona, “The Obligations of ‘International Assistance and Cooperation’ Under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Possible Entry Point to a Human Rights Based Approach to Millennium Development Goal 8” (2009) 13:1 Intl J Hum Rts 86 at 91; Mark Gibney, “Responsibilities for Protecting Human Rights” (3 February 2008) 1:3 Global-e, online: .

 

395

Carmona, supra note 394 at 91.

 

396

Mok, supra note 392 at 76.

 

397

Skogly, supra note 393 at 71; Wouter Vandehoule, Is There a Legal Obligation to Cooperate Internationally for Development, Report to General Day of Discussion, Convention on the Rights of the Child (July 27, 2007), online: .

 

398

Bullis, supra note 139; Owen, supra note 16 at 214

 

399

David Morrow & Toby Svoboda, “Geoengineering and Non-Ideal Theory” (2016) 30:1 Public Aff Q 83 at 84.

 

400 Ibid at 86.

 

401

Toby Svoboda, “Aerosol Geoengineering Deployment and Fairness” (2016) 25 Envtl Values 51 at 65.

 

402

Morrow & Svoboda, supra note 399 at 86.

 

403

See notes 337–342 and accompanying text.

 

404

See Mark Z Jacobson & Mark A Delucchi, “Providing All Global Energy with Wind, Water, and Solar Power, Part I: Technologies, Energy Resources, Quantities and Areas of Infrastructure and Materials” (2011) 39 Energy Pol’y 1154 at 1169; Mark A Delucchi & Mark Z Jacobson, “Providing All Global Energy with Wind, Water, and Solar Power, Part II: Reliability, System and Transmission Costs and Policies” (2011) 39 Energy Pol’y 1170 to 1190. For a critical review of such proposals, see Peter J Loftus et al, “A Critical Review of Global Decarbonization Scenarios: What Do They Tell Us About Feasibility?” (2015) 6:1 Climate Change 93 at 112.

 

405

Stephen M Gardiner, “Is ‘Arming the Future’ with Geoengineering Really the Lesser Evil?” in Stephen M Gardiner et al, eds, Climate Ethics: Essential Readings (Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 2010) 284 at 292.

 

406

Australia, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, “Human Rights and Climate Change” (2008), online: at 14.

 

407

John Crowley, “Climate Change, Climate Knowledge and Human Rights” (2011), online: at 3.

 

408

Fisher, supra note 298 at 13. 

 

 

 

ABOUT CIGI

 

The Centre for International Governance Innovation is an independent, non-partisan think tank on international governance. Led by experienced practitioners and distinguished academics, CIGI supports research, forms networks, advances policy debate and generates ideas for multilateral governance improvements. Conducting an active agenda of research, events and publications, CIGI’s interdisciplinary work includes collaboration with policy, business and academic communities around the world. CIGI’s current research programs focus on three themes: the global economy; global security & politics; and international law. CIGI was founded in 2001 by Jim Balsillie, then co-CEO of Research In Motion (BlackBerry), and collaborates with and gratefully acknowledges support from a number of strategic partners, in particular the Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario. Le CIGI a été fondé en 2001 par Jim Balsillie, qui était alors co-chef de la direction de Research In Motion (BlackBerry). Il collabore avec de nombreux partenaires stratégiques et exprime sa reconnaissance du soutien reçu de ceux-ci, notamment de l’appui reçu du gouvernement du Canada et de celui du gouvernement de l’Ontario. For more information, please visit www.cigionline.org

 

 

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

 

William C.G. Burns is a CIGI senior fellow with the ILRP. Until recently, he served as director of the Energy Policy & Climate Program at Johns Hopkins University, and now serves as co-director of the Forum for Climate Engineering Assessment, a scholarly initiative of the School of International Service at American University in Washington, DC. He also serves as the co-chair of the International Environmental Law Committee of the American Branch of the International Law Association. William is the former president of the Association of Environmental Studies and Sciences, as well as co-chair of the International Environmental Law interest group of the American Society of International Law. Prior to becoming an academic, William served as assistant secretary of state for public affairs for the State of Wisconsin and worked in the non-governmental sector for 20 years, including as executive director of the Pacific Center for International Studies, a think tank that focused on implementation of international wildlife treaty regimes, including the Convention on Biological Diversity and International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. William has published more than 75 articles in law, science and policy journals and has co-edited four books. His current areas of research focus are: climate geoengineering; international climate change litigation; adaptation strategies to address climate change, with a focus on the potential role of microinsurance; the effectiveness of international treaty regimes to conserve cetaceans; and how to effectively operationalize the precautionary principle in international environmental treaty regimes. William holds a Ph.D. in international environmental law from the University of WalesCardiff School of Law.

 

 

ABOUT THE ILRP

 

The International Law Research Program (ILRP) at CIGI is an integrated multidisciplinary research program that provides leading academics, government and private sector legal experts, as well as students from Canada and abroad, with the opportunity to contribute to advancements in international law. The ILRP strives to be the world’s leading international law research program, with recognized impact on how international law is brought to bear on significant global issues. The program’s mission is to connect knowledge, policy and practice to build the international law framework — the globalized rule of law — to support international governance of the future. Its founding belief is that better international governance, including a strengthened international law framework, can improve the lives of people everywhere, increase prosperity, ensure global sustainability, address inequality, safeguard human rights and promote a more secure world. The ILRP will focus on the areas of international law that are most important to global innovation, prosperity and sustainability: international economic law, international intellectual property law and international environmental law. In its research, the ILRP is attentive to the emerging interactions between international and transnational law, indigenous law and constitutional law.

 

CIGI Papers no. 111 — October 2016 

 

Quelle: https://www.cigionline.org/sites/default/files/documents/CIGI%20Paper%20no.111%20WEB.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ein künstliches Klima durch SRM Geo-Engineering

 

Sogenannte "Chemtrails" sind SRM Geoengineering-Forschungs-Experimente

 

Illegale Feldversuche der SRM Technik, weltweit.

 

 

Illegale militärische und zivile GE-Forschungen finden in einer rechtlichen Grauzone statt.

 

Feldversuche oder illegale SRM Interventionen wurden nie in nur einem einzigen Land der Welt,  je durch ein Parlament gebracht, deshalb sind sie nicht legalisiert und finden in einer rechtlichen Grauzone der Forschung statt. Regierungen wissen genau, dass sie diese Risiko-Forschung, die absichtliche Veränderung mit dem Wetter nie durch die Parlamente bekommen würden..

Climate-Engineering

HAARP - Die Büchse der Pandora in militärischen Händen

 

 

Illegale zivile und militärische SRM Experimente finden 7 Tage die Woche (nonstop) rund um die Uhr statt. 

 

Auch Nachts - trotz Nacht-

Flugverbot.

 

Geo-Engineering Forschung

 

 

Der Wissenschaftler David Keith, der die Geo-Ingenieure Ken Caldeira und Alan Robock in ihrer Arbeit unterstütztsagte auf einem Geo-Engineering - Seminar am 20. Februar 2010, dass sie beschlossen hätten, ihre stratosphärischen Aerosol-Modelle von Schwefel auf Aluminium umzustellen

 

Niemand auf der ganzen Welt , zumindest keiner der staatlichen Medien berichtete von diesem wichtigen Ereignis.

 

 

 

 

Wissenschaftler planen 10 bis 100 Megatonnen hoch toxischer Materialien wie Aluminium, synthetischen Nanopartikeln jedes Jahr in unserer Atmosphäre auszubringen.

 

Die Mengenangaben von SRM Materialien werden neuerdings fast immer in Teragramm berechnet. 

 

  1 Teragramm  = 1 Megatonne

  1 Megatonne  = 1 Million Tonnen

 

 

SAI = Stratosphärische

Aerosol Injektionen mit toxischen Materialen wie:

 

  • Aluminiumoxide
  • Black Carbon 
  • Zinkoxid 
  • Siliciumkarbit
  • Diamant
  • Bariumtitanat
  • Bariumsalze
  • Strontium
  • Sulfate
  • Schwefelsäure 
  • Schwefelwasserstoff
  • Carbonylsulfid
  • Ruß-Aerosole
  • Schwefeldioxid
  • Dimethylsulfit
  • Titan
  • Lithium
  • Kalkstaub
  • Titandioxid
  • Natriumchlorid
  • Meersalz 
  • Calciumcarbonat
  • Siliciumdioxid
  • Silicium
  • Bismuttriiodid (BiI3
  • Polymere
  • Polymorph von TiO2

 


 

 

 

April 2016 

Aerosol Experiments Using Lithium and Psychoactive Drugs Over Oregon.

 

 

SKYGUARDS: Petition an das Europäische Parlament

 

 

Wir haben keine Zeit zu verlieren!

 

 

 

Klage gegen Geo-Engineering und Klimapolitik 

 

Der Rechtsweg ist vielleicht die einzige Hoffnung, Geo-Engineering-Programme zum Anhalten zu bewegen. Paris und andere Klimaabkommen schaffen Ziele von rechtlich international verbindlichen Vereinbarungen. Wenn sie erfolgreich sind, werden höchstwahrscheinlich SRM-Programme ohne ein ordentliches Gerichtsverfahren legalisiert. Wenn das geschieht, wird das unsere Fähigkeit Geoengineering zu verhindern und jede Form von rechtlichen Maßnahmen zu ergreifen stark behindern.

 

Ziel dieser Phase ist es, Mittel zu beschaffen um eine US- Klage vorzubereiten. Der Hauptanwalt Wille Tierarzt wählt qualifizierte Juristen aus dem ganzen Land aus, um sicher zu stellen, dass wir Top-Talente sichern, die wir für unser langfristiges Ziel einsetzen.

 

 

Die Fakten sind, dass seit einem Jahrzehnt am Himmel illegale Wetter -Änderungs-Programme stattfinden, unter Einsatz des Militärs im Rahmen der NATO, ohne Wissen oder Einwilligung der Bevölkerung..

EU-Konferenz und Petition über Wettermodifizierung und Geoengineering in Verbindung mit HAARP Technologien

 

Die Zeit ist gekommen. Anonymous wird nicht länger zusehen. Am 23. April werden wir weltweit gegen Chemtrails und Geoengineering friedlich demonstrieren.

 

Anonymous gegen Geoengineering 

 

 

Wir waren die allerletzten Zeit Zeugen eines normalen natürlichen blauen Himmels.

 

NIE WIEDER WIRD DER HIMMEL SO BLAU SEIN.

 

 

Heute ist der Himmel nicht mehr blau, sondern eher rot oder grau. 

 

 

Metapedia –

Die alternative Enzyklopädie

 

http://de.metapedia.org/wiki/HAARP

 

http://de.metapedia.org/wiki/Chemtrails

 

 

ALLBUCH -

Die neue Enzyklopädie

 

http://de.allbuch.online/wiki/Chemtrails Chemtrails

http://de.allbuch.online/wiki/GeoEngineering GeoEngineering

http://de.allbuch.online/wiki/HAARP HAARP

 

 

 

 

 

SRM - Geoengineering

Aluminium anstatt Schwefeloxid

 

Im Zuge der American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Conference 2010, San Diego am 20. Februar 2010, wurde vom kanadischen Geoingenieur David W. Keith (University of Calgary) vorgeschlagen, Aluminium anstatt Schwefeldioxid zu verwenden. Begründet wurde dieser Vorschlag mit 1) einem 4-fach größeren Strahlungsantrieb 2) einem ca. 16-fach geringeren Gerinnungsfaktor. Derselbe Albedoeffekt könnte so mit viel geringeren Mengen Aluminium, anstatt Schwefel, bewerkstelligt werden. [13]

 

Mehr Beweise als dieses Video braucht man wohl nicht. >>> Aerosol-Injektionen

 


Das "Geo-Engineering" Klima-Forschungsprogramm der USA wurde direkt dem Weißen Haus unterstellt,

bzw. dort dem White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) zugewiesen. 

 

 

Diese Empfehlung lassen bereits das Konfliktpotential dieser GE-Forschung erahnen.

 

 

 

 

 

In den USA fällt Geo-Engineering unter Sicherheitspolitik und Verteidigungspolitik: 

 

 

Geo-Engineering als Sicherheitspolitische Maßnahme..

 

Ein Bericht der NASA merkt an, eine Katastrophensituation könnte die Entscheidung über SRM maßgeblich erleichtern, dann würden politische und ökonomische Einwände irrelevant sein. Die Abschirmung von Sonnenlicht durch SRM Maßnahmen wäre dann die letzte Möglichkeit, um einen katastrophalen Klimawandel abzuwenden.

 

maßgeblich erleichtern..????

 

Nach einer Katastrophensituation sind diese ohnehin illegalen geheimen militärischen SRM Programme wohl noch leichter durch die Parlamente zu bringen unter dem Vorwand der zivilen GE-Forschung. 

 

 

 


Der US-Geheimdienst CIA finanziert mit 630.000 $ für die Jahre   2013/14 

Geoengineering-Studien. Diese Studie wird u.a. auch von zwei anderen staatlichen Stellen NASA und NOAA finanziert. 

 

WARUM SIND DIESE LINKS DER CIA / NASA / NOAA STUDIE ALLE AUS DEM INTERNET WEG ZENSIERT WORDEN, WENN ES DOCH NICHTS ZU VERBERGEN GIBT...?

 

Um möglichst keine Spuren zu hinterlassen.. sind wirklich restlos alle Links im Netz entfernt worden. 

 

 

 

 

 

Es existieren viele Vorschläge zur technologischen Umsetzung des stratosphärischen Aerosol- Schildes.

 

Ein Patent aus dem Jahr 1991 behandelt das Einbringen von Aerosolen in die Stratosphäre

(Chang 1991).

 

Ein neueres Patent behandelt ein Verfahren, in dem Treibstoffzusätze in Verkehrsflugzeugen zum Ausbringen reflektierender Substanzen genutzt werden sollen (Hucko 2009).

 

 

 

Die von Microsoft finanzierte Firma Intellectual Ventures fördert die Entwick­lung eines „Stratoshield“ genannten Verfahrens, bei dem die Aerosolerzeugung in der Strato­sphäre über einen von einem Ballon getragenen Schlauch vom Erdboden aus bewirkt werden soll.

 

CE-Technologien wirken entweder symptomatisch oder ursächlich

 

Symptomatisch wirkend: 

Modifikation durch SRM-Geoengineering- Aerosole in der Stratosphäre

 

Ursächlich wirkend: 

Reduktion der CO2 Konzentration (CDR) 

 

Effekte verschiedener Wolkentypen

 

Dicke, tief hängende Wolken reflektieren das Sonnenlicht besonders gut und beeinflussen kaum die Energie, die von der Erde als langwellige Infrarotstrahlung abgegeben wird. Hohe Wolken sind dagegen kälter und meist dünner. Sie lassen daher mehr Sonnenlicht durch, dafür speichern sie anteilig mehr von der langwelligen, abgestrahlten Erdenergie. Um die Erde abzukühlen, sind daher tiefe Wolken das Ziel der Geoingenieure.

 

 

Zirruswolken wirken also generell erwärmend (Lee et al. 2009). Werden diese Wolken künstlich aufgelöst oder verändert, so wird sich in der Regel ein kühlender Effekt ergeben.

 

Nach einem Vorschlag von Mitchell et al.  (2009) könnte dies durch ein Einsäen von effizienten Eiskeimen bei der Wolkenbildung geschehen.

 

 

Eiskeime werden nur in sehr geringer Menge benötigt und könnten beispielsweise durch Verkehrs-Flugzeuge an geeigneten Orten ausgebracht werden. Die benötigten Materialmengen liegen dabei im Bereich von einigen kg pro Flug.

 

 

Die RQ-4 Global Hawk fliegt etwa in 20 Kilometer Höhe ohne Pilot.

1 - 1,5  Tonnen Nutzlast.

 

Instead of visualizing a jet full of people, a jet full of poison.

 

 

Das Militär hat bereits mehr Flugzeuge als für dieses Geo-Engineering-Szenario erforderlich wären, hergestellt. Da der Klimawandel eine wichtige Frage der nationalen Sicherheit ist [Schwartz und Randall, 2003], könnte das Militär für die Durchführung dieser Mission mit bestehenden Flugzeugen zu minimalen Zusatzkosten sein.

 

http://climate.envsci.rutgers.edu/pdf/GRLreview2.pdf

 

 

 

Die künstliche Klima-Kontrolle durch GE

 

Dies sind die Ausbringung von Aerosolpartikeln in der Stratosphäre, sowie die Erhöhung der Wolkenhelligkeit in der Troposphäre mithilfe von künstlichen Kondensationskeimen.

 

 

 

Brisanz von Climate Engineering  (DFG)

 

Climate-Engineering wird bei Klimakonferenzen (z.B. auf dem Weltklimagipfel in Doha) zunehmend diskutiert. Da die Maßnahmen für die angestrebten Klimaziele bisher nicht greifen, wird Climate Engineering als alternative Hilfe in Betracht gezogen.

 

 

x

 

Umweltaktivistin und Trägerin des alternativen Nobelpreises Dr. Rosalie Bertell, berichtet in Ihrem Buch »Kriegswaffe Planet Erde« über die Folgewirkungen und Auswirkungen diverser (Kriegs-) Waffen..

 

Bild anklicken
Bild anklicken

 

Dieses Buch ist ein Muss für jeden Bürger auf diesem Planeten.

 

..Indessen gehen die Militärs ja selbst gar nicht davon aus, dass es überhaupt einen Klimawandel gibt, wie wir aus Bertell´s Buch wissen (Hamilton in Bertell 2011).

 

Sondern das, was wir als Klimawandel bezeichnen, sind die Wirkungen der immer mehr zunehmenden

Wetter-Manipulationen

und Eingriffe ins Erdgeschehen mittels Geoengineering, insbesondere durch die HAARP-ähnlichen Anlagen, die es inzwischen in aller Welt gibt..

 

Bild anklicken
Bild anklicken

 

 

Why in the World are they spraying 

 

Durch die bahnbrechenden Filme von Michael J. Murphy "What in the World Are They Spraying?" und "Why in the world are the Spraying?" wurden Millionen Menschen die Zerstörung durch SRM-Geoengineering-Projekte vor Augen geführt. Seitdem bilden sich weltweit Bewegungen gegen dieses Verbrechen.

 

 

Die Facebook Gruppe Global-Skywatch hat weltweit inzwischen schon über 90.000 Mitglieder und es werden immer mehr Menschen, die die Wahrheit erkennen und die "gebetsmühlenartig" verbreiteten Lügengeschichten der Regierung und Behörden in Bezug zur GE-Forschung zu Recht völlig hinterfragen. 

 

Bild anklicken: Untertitel in deutscher Sprache
Bild anklicken: Untertitel in deutscher Sprache

 

 


ALBEDO ENHANCEMENT BY STRATOSPHERIC SULFUR INJECTIONS


http://faculty.washington.edu/stevehar/Geoengineering_packet.pdf

 

SRM Programme - Ausbringung durch Flugzeuge 

 

 

 

Die Frage die bleibt, ist die Antwort auf  Stratosphärische Aerosol- Injektions- Programme und die tägliche Umweltzer-störung auf unserem Planeten“

 

 

 

Die Arbeit von Brovkin et al. (2009) zeigt für ein Emissionsszenario ohne Emissionskontrolle, dass der Einsatz von RM für mehrere 1000 Jahre fortgesetzt werden muss, je nachdem wie vollständig der Treibhausgas-induzierte Strahlungsantrieb kompensiert werden soll.

 

 

 

Falls sich die Befürchtung bewahrheitet, dass eine Unterbrechung von RM-Maßnahmen zu abruptem Klimawandel führt, kann sich durch den CE-Einsatz ein Lock-in-Effekt ergeben. Die hohen gesamtwirtschaftlichen Kosten dieses abrupten Klimawandels würden sozusagen eine Weiterführung der RM-Maßnahmen erzwingen.

 

 

 

 

Ausbringungsmöglichkeiten

 

Neben den Studien von CSEPP (1992) und Robock et al. (2009), ist insbesondere die aktuelle Studie von McClellan et al. (2010) hervorzuheben. Für die Ausbringung mit Flugsystemen wird angenommen, dass das Material mit einer Rate von 0,03 kg/m freigesetzt wird. Es werden Ausbringungshöhen von 13 bis 30 km untersucht.

 

 

 

 

Bestehende kleine Düsenjäger, wie der F-15C Eagle, sind in der Lage in der unteren Stratosphäre in den Tropen zu fliegen, während in der Arktis größere Flugzeuge wie die KC-135 Stratotanker oder KC-10 Extender in der Lage sind, die gewünschten Höhen zu erreichen.

x

 

SRM Protest-Märsche gleichzeitig in circa 150 Städten - weltweit.

 

Geoengineering-Forschung als Plan B für eine weltweit verfehlte Klimapolik. 

 

Bild anklicken:
Bild anklicken:

 

Staaten führen illegale Wetter-Änderungs-Techniken als globales Experiment gegen den Klimawandel durch, geregelt über die UN, ausgeführt durch die NATO, mit militärischen Flugzeugen werden jährlich 10-20 Millionen Tonnen hoch giftiger Substanzen in den Himmel gesprüht..

 

Giftige Substanzen, wie Aluminium, Barium, Strontium, die unsere Böden verseuchen und die auch auf Dauer den ph-Wert des Bodens deutlich verändern würden. Es sind giftige Substanzen, wie Schwefel, welches die Ozonschicht systematisch zerstören würde. 

 

x

 

 

 

Weltweite  Protestmärsche gegen globale Geoengineering Experimente finden am 25. April 2015 in all diesen Städten gleichzeitig statt:

 

 

 

AUSTRALIEN - (Adelaide)

AUSTRALIEN - (Albury-Wodonga)

AUSTRALIEN - (Bendigo)

AUSTRALIEN - (Brisbane)

AUSTRALIEN - (Byron Bay)

AUSTRALIEN - (Cairns)

AUSTRALIEN - (Canberra)

AUSTRALIEN - (Darwin)

AUSTRALIEN - (Gold Coast)

AUSTRALIEN - (Hobart)

AUSTRALIEN - (Melbourne)

AUSTRALIEN - (Newcastle)

AUSTRALIEN - (New South Wales, Byron Bay)

AUSTRALIEN - (Perth)

AUSTRALIEN - (Port Macquarie)

AUSTRALIEN - (South Coast NSW)

AUSTRALIEN - (South East Qeensland)

AUSTRALIEN - (Sunshine Coast)

AUSTRALIEN - (Sydney)

AUSTRALIEN - (Tasmania)

BELGIEN - (Brüssel)

BELGIEN - (Brüssel Group)

BRASILIEN - (Curitiba)

BRASILIEN - (Porto Allegre)

BULGARIEN - (Sofia)

Kanada - Alberta - (Calgary)

Kanada - Alberta - (Edmonton)

Kanada - Alberta - (Fort Saskatchewan)

Kanada - British Columbia - (Vancouver Group)

Kanada - British Columbia - (Victoria)

Kanada - Manitobak - (Winnipeg)

Kanada – Neufundland

Kanada - Ontario - (Barrie)

Kanada - Ontario - (Cambridge)

Kanada - Ontario - (Hamilton)

Kanada - Ontario - (London)

Kanada - Ontario - (Toronto)

Kanada - Ontario  - (Ottawa)

Kanada - Ontario - (Windsor)

Kanada - Québec - (Montreal)

KOLUMBIEN - (Medellin)

ZYPERN

KROATIEN - (Zagreb)

DÄNEMARK - (Aalborg)

DÄNEMARK - (Kopenhagen)

DÄNEMARK - (Odense)

ESTLAND - (Tallinn)

Ägypten (Alexandria)

FINNLAND - (Helsinki)

FRANKREICH - (Paris)

DEUTSCHLAND - (Berlin)

DEUTSCHLAND - (Köln)

DEUTSCHLAND - (Düsseldorf)

DEUTSCHLAND - HESSEN - (Wetzlar)

GRIECHENLAND - (Athens)

GRIECHENLAND - (Attica)

Ungarn (Budapest)

IRLAND - (Cork City)

IRLAND - (Galway)

ITALIEN - (Milano)

Italien - Sardinien - (Cagliari)

MAROKKO - (Rabat)

NIEDERLANDE - (Den Haag)

NIEDERLANDE - (Groningen)

NEUSEELAND - (Auckland)

NEUSEELAND - (Christchurch)

NEUSEELAND - (Hamilton)

NEUSEELAND - (Nelson)

NEUSEELAND - (New Plymouth)

NEUSEELAND - (Takaka)

NEUSEELAND - (Taupo)

NEUSEELAND - (Wellington)

NEUSEELAND - (Whangerei)

NEUSEELAND - WEST COAST - (Greymouth)

NORWEGEN-(Bergen)

NORWEGEN - (Oslo)

PORTUGAL - (Lissabon)

SERBIEN - (Glavni Gradovi)

SERBIEN - (Nis)

SLOWENIEN

SPANIEN - (Barcelona)

SPANIEN - (La Coruna)

SPANIEN - (Ibiza)

SPANIEN - (Murcia)

SPANIEN - (San Juan - Alicante)

SCHWEDEN - (Gothenburg)

SCHWEDEN - (Stockholm)

SCHWEIZ - (Bern)

SCHWEIZ - (Genf)

SCHWEIZ - (Zürich)

UK - ENGLAND - (London)

UK - ISLE OF MAN - (Douglas)

UK - Lancashir - (Burnley)

UK - Scotland - (Glasgow)

UK - Cornwall - (Truro)

USA - Alaska - (Anchorage)

USA - Arizona - (Flagstaff)

USA - Arizona - (Tucson)

USA - Arkansas - (Hot Springs)

USA - Kalifornien - (Hemet)

USA - CALIFORINA - (Los Angeles)

USA - Kalifornien - (Redding)

USA - Kalifornien - (Sacramento)

USA - Kalifornien - (San Diego)

USA - Kalifornien - (Santa Cruz)

USA - Kalifornien - (San Francisco)

USA - Kalifornien - Orange County - (Newport Beach)

USA - Colorado - (Denver)

USA - Connecticut - (New Haven)

USA - Florida - (Boca Raton)

USA - Florida - (Cocoa Beach)

USA - Florida - (Miami)

USA - Florida - (Tampa)

USA - Georgia - (Gainesville)

USA - Illinois - (Chicago)

USA - Hawaii - (Maui)

USA - Iowa - (Davenport)

USA - Kentucky - (Louisville)

USA - LOUISIANA - (New Orleans)

USA - Maine - (Auburn)

USA - Maryland - (Easton)

USA - Massachusetts - (Worcester)

USA - Minnesota - (St. Paul)

USA - Missouri - (St. Louis)

USA - Montana - (Missoula)

USA - NEVADA - (Black Rock City)

USA - NEVADA - (Las Vegas)

USA - NEVADA - (Reno)

USA - New Jersey - (Red Bank)

USA - New Mexico (Northern)

USA - NEW YORK - (Ithaca)

USA - NEW YORK - (Long Island)

USA - NEW YORK - (New York City)

USA - NORTH CAROLINA - (Asheville)

USA - NORTH CAROLINA - (Charlotte)

USA - NORTH CAROLINA - (Greensboro)

USA - Oregon - (Ashland)

USA - Oregon - (Portland)

USA - Pennsylvania - (Harrisburg)

USA - Pennsylvania - (Pittsburgh)

USA - Pennsylvania - (West Chester)

USA - Pennsylvania - (Wilkes - Barre)

USA - SOUTH CAROLINA - (Charleston)

USA - Tennessee - (Memphis)

USA - Texas - (Austin)

USA - Texas - (Dallas / Metroplex)

USA - Texas - (Houston)

USA - Texas - (San Antonio)

USA - Vermont - (Burlington)

USA - Virginia - (Richmond)

USA - Virginia - (Virginia Beach)

USA - WASHINGTON - (Seattle)

USA - Wisconsin - (Milwaukee)

 

Bild anklickem: Holger Strom Webseite
Bild anklickem: Holger Strom Webseite

 

Der Film zeigt eindrucksvolle Beispiele, beginnend beim Einsatz der Atombomben mit ihren schrecklichen Auswirkungen bis hin zu den gesundheitszerstörenden, ja tödlichen Hinterlassenschaften der Atomenergienutzung durch die Energiewirtschaft. Eine besondere Stärke des Films liegt in den Aussagen zahlreicher, unabhängiger Fachleute. Sie erläutern mit ihrem in Jahrzehnten eigener Forschung und Erfahrung gesammelten Wissen Sachverhalte und Zusammenhänge, welche die Befürworter und Nutznießer der Atomtechnologie in Politik, Wirtschaft und Militärwesen gerne im Verborgenen halten wollen.

                                             

Prof. Dr. med. Dr. h. c. Edmund Lengfelder

 

 

Nicht viel anders gehen Politiker/ Abgeordnete des Deutschen Bundestages mit der hoch toxischen riskanten SRM Geoengineering-Forschung um, um diese riskante Forschung durch die Parlamente zu bekommen.

 

Es wird mit gefährlichen Halbwissen und Halbwahrheiten gearbeitet. Sie werden Risiken vertuschen, verdrehen und diese Experimente als das einzig Richtige gegen den drohenden Klimawandel verkaufen. Chemtrails sind Stratosphärische Aerosol Injektionen, die  illegal auf globaler Ebene stattfinden, ohne jeglichen Parlament-Beschluss der beteiligten Regierungen.

 

Geoengineering-Projekte einmal begonnen, sollen für Jahrtausende fortgeführt werden - ohne Unterbrechung (auch bei finanziellen Engpässen oder sonstigen Unruhen) um nicht einen Umkehreffekt  auszulösen.

 

Das erzählt Ihnen die Regierung natürlich nicht, um diese illegale hochgefährliche RM Forschung nur ansatzweise durch die Parlamente zu bringen.

 

Spätestens seit dem Atommüll-Skandal mit dem Forschungs-Projekt ASSE wissen wir Bürger/Innen, wie Politik und Wissenschaft mit Forschungs-Risiken umgehen.. Diese Gefahren und Risiken werden dann den Bürgern einfach verschwiegen. 

 

 


 

 

www.climate-engineering.eu

 

Am 30. September 2012 ist eine neue Internetplattform zu Climate Engineering online gegangen www.climate-engineering.eu  

 

Die Plattform enthält alle neuen Infos -Publikationen, Veranstaltungen etc. zu Climate-Engineering.

 

 

 

 

Gezielte Eingriffe in das Klima?

Eine Bestandsaufnahme der Debatte zu Climate Engineering

Kieler Earth Institute

 

 

Climate Engineering:

Ethische Aspekte

Karlsruher Institut für Technologie

 

 

Climate Engineering:

Chancen und Risiken einer Beeinflussung der Erderwärmung. Naturwissenschaftliche und technische Aspekte

Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung, Leipzig

 

Climate Engineering:

Wirtschaftliche Aspekte 

Kiel Earth Institute

 

 

Climate Engineering:

Risikowahrnehmung, gesellschaftliche Risikodiskurse und Optionen der Öffentlichkeitsbeteiligung

Dialogik Stuttgart

 

 

Climate Engineering:

Instrumente und Institutionen des internationalen Rechts

Universität Trier

 

 

Climate Engineering:

Internationale Beziehungen und politische Regulierung

Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung

 

 

 

Illegale Atmosphären-Experimente finden in Deutschland  seit  2012 „täglich“ am Himmel statt.

 

Chemtrails  -  Verschwörung am Himmel ? Wettermanipulation unter den Augen der Öffentlichkeit

 

Auszug aus dem Buch: 

 

Ich behaupte, dass in etwa 2 bis 3 mal pro Woche, ungefähr ein halbes Dutzend  von frühmorgens bis spätabends in einer Art und Weise Wien überfliegen, die logisch nicht erklärbar ist. Diese Maschinen führen über dem Stadtgebiet manchmal auffällige Steig- und Sinkflüge durch , sie fliegen Bögen und sie drehen abrupt ab. Und sie hinterlassen überall ihre dauerhaft beständigen Kondensstreifen, welche auch ich Chemtrails nenne. Sie verschleiern an manchen Tagen ganz Wien und rundherum am Horizont ist strahlend blauer ...
Hier in diesem Buch  aus dem Jahr 2005 werden die anfänglichen stratosphärischen SRM-Experimente am Himmel beschrieben... inzwischen fliegen die Chemie-Bomber ja 24 h Nonstop, rund um die Uhr.

 

 

 

 

Weather Modification Patente

 

http://weatherpeace.blogspot.de

 

Umfangreiche Liste der Patente

http://www.geoengineeringwatch.org/links-to-geoengineering-patents/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Von Pat Mooney - Er ist Gründer und Geschäftsführer der kanadischen Umweltschutzorganisation ETC Group in Ottawa.

 

Im Jahr 1975 tat sich der US-Geheimdienst CIA mit Newsweek zusammen und warnte vor globaler Abkühlung. Im selben Jahr wiesen britische Wissenschaftler die Existenz eines Lochs in der Ozonschicht über der Antarktis nach und die UN-Vollversammlung befasste sich mit identischen Anträgen der Sowjetunion und der USA für ein Verbot von Klimamanipulationen, die militärischen Zwecken dienen. Dreißig Jahre später redeten alle - auch der US-Präsident über globale Erwärmung. 

 

Wissenschaftler warnten, der Temperaturanstieg über dem arktischen Eis  und im sibirischen Permafrost könnte in die Klimakatastrophe führen, und der US-Senat erklärte sich bereit , eine Vorlage zu prüfen, mit der Eingriffe in das Klima erlaubt werden sollten. 

 

Geo-Engineering ist heute Realität. Seit dem Debakel von Kopenhagen bemüht sich die große Politik zusammen mit ein paar Milliardären verstärkt darum, großtechnische Szenarien zu prüfen und die entsprechenden Experimente durchzuführen.

 

Seit Anfang 2009 überbieten sich die Medien mit Geschichten über Geoengineering als "Plan B". Wissenschaftliche Institute und Nobelpreisträger legen Berichte und Anträge vor, um die Politik zur Finanzierung von Feldversuchen zu bewegen. Im britischem Parlament wie im US-Kongress haben die Anhörungen schon begonnen. Anfang 2010 berichteten Journalisten, Bill Gates investiere privat in Geoengineering-Forschung und werde bei Geoengineering-Patenten zur Senkung der Meerestemperatur und zur Steuerung von Hurrikanen sogar als Miterfinder genannt. Unterdesssen hat Sir Richard Branson - Gründer und Besitzer der Fluglinie Virgin Air - verkündet, er habe eine Kommandozentrale für den Klimakrieg eingerichtet und sei für alle klimatechnischen Optionen offen. Zuvor hatte er 25 Millionen Dollar für eine Technik ausgesetzt, mit der sich die Stratosphäre reinigen lässt. 

 

Einige der reichsten Männer der Welt (z.B. Richard Branson und Bill Gates ) und die mächtigsten Konzerne (z.B. Shell , Boeing ) werden immer beteiligt.

 

Geoengineering Karte - ETC Group

 

ETC Group veröffentlicht eine Weltkarte über Geoengineering-Experimente, die groß angelegte Manipulation des Klimas unserer Erde.  Zwar gibt es keine vollständige Aufzeichnung von Wetter und Klima-Projekten in Dutzenden von Ländern, diese Karte ist aber der erste Versuch, um den expandierenden Umfang der Forschungs-Experimente zu dokumentieren. 

 

Fast 300 Geo-Engineering-Projekte / Experimente sind auf der Karte vertreten, die zu den verschiedenen Arten von Klima-Änderungs-Technologien gehören.

Einfach anklicken und vergrößern..
Einfach anklicken und vergrößern..

 

Aus der Sicht der reichen Länder (und ihrer Unternehmen) erscheint Geoengineering einfach perfekt. Es ist machbar. Es ist (relativ) billig. Und es erlaubt der Industrie, den Umbau unserer Wirtschaft und Produktionsweise für überflüssig zu erklären.

 

Das wichtigste aber ist: Geoengineering braucht keinerlei internationale Übereinkunft. Länder, Unternehmen, ja sogar superreiche Geo-Piraten können es auf eigene Faust durchziehen. Eine bescheidene >Koalition der Willigen< genügt vollauf, und eine Handvoll Akteure kann den Planeten nach Belieben umbauen.

 

Damit wir es nicht vergessen:

 

Seit 1945  führten die USA, die UdSSR, England, Frankreich und später auch China mehr als 2000 Atomtests durch – über und unter der Erde und ohne Rücksicht auf die zu erwartenden Auswirkungen auf Gesundheit und Umwelt weltweit. Niemand wurde um Erlaubnis gefragt. Wenn das Weltklima zu kippen droht, werden sie da wirklich vor einseitigen Entscheidungen zurückschrecken? 

 

 

 

Warum ist Geo-Engineering nicht akzeptabel..?

 

SRM Geoengineering kann nicht im Labor getestet werden: Es ist keine experimentelle Labor-Phase möglich, um einen spürbaren Einfluss auf das Klima zu haben. Geo-Engineering muss massiv eingesetzt werden.

 

Experimente oder Feldversuche entsprechen tatsächlich den Einsatz in der realen Welt, da kleine Tests nicht die Daten auf Klimaeffekte liefern.

 

Auswirkungen für die Menschen und die biologische Vielfalt würden wahrscheinlich sofort massiv und möglicherweise irreversibel sein.

 

 

 

 

Hände weg von Mutter Erde (HOME) ist eine weltweite Kampagne, um unserem kostbaren Planeten Erde, gegen die Bedrohung durch Geo-Engineering-Experimente zu verteidigen. Gehen Sie mit uns, um eine klare Botschaft an die Geo-Ingenieure und die Regierungen weltweit zu senden, dass unsere Erde kein ein Labor ist.

 

x

Liste der (SRM) Geoengineering-Forschung

Hier anklicken:
Hier anklicken:

http://www.ww.w.givewell.org/files/shallow/geoengineering/Geoengineering research funding 10-9-13.xls

 

Weltweite Liste der Geoengineering-Forschung SRM Forschungs Länder: 

 

Großbritannien, Vereinigte Staaten Amerika, Deutschland, Frankreich, Norwegen, Finnland, Österreich und Japan.

 

 

In "NEXT BANG!" beschreibt Pat Money neue Risikotechnologien, die heute von Wissenschaftlern, Politikern und mächtigen Finanziers aktiv für den kommerziellen Einsatz vorbereitet werden:

 

Geo-Engineering, Nanotechnologie, oder die künstliche >Verbesserung< des menschlichen Körpers.

 

"Die  Brisanz des Buches liegt darin, dass es zeigt, wie die Technologien, die unsere Zukunft bestimmen könnten, heute zum großflächigen Einsatz vorbereitet werden – und das weitgehend unbemerkt von der Öffentlichkeit. Atomkraft, toxische Chemikalien oder genmanipulierte Organismen konnten deshalb nicht durch demokratische Entscheidungen verhindert werden, weil hinter ihnen bereits eine zu große ökonomische und politische Macht stand, als ihre Risiken vielen Menschen erst bewusst wurden.

 

Deshalb dürfen wir die Diskussion über Geoengineering, Nanotechnologie, synthetische Biologie  und die anderen neuen Risikotechnologien nicht länger den selbsternannten Experten überlassen. Die Entscheidungen über ihren künftigen Einsatz fallen jetzt - es ist eine Frage der Demokratie, dass wir alle dabei mitreden."

 

Ole von UexküllDirektor der Right Livelihood Award Foundation, die den Alternativen Nobelpreis vergibt

 

 

Vanishing of the Bees - No Bees, No Food !

 

Verschwinden der Bienen  - Keine Bienen, kein Essen !

 

http://www.beeheroic.com/geoengineering-and-environment

http://www.beeheroic.com/resources

 

 

 

 

 

Solar Radiation Management = SRM

Es ist zu beachten, dass SRM Maßnahmen zwar auf kurzer Zeitskala wirksam werden können, die Dauer ihres Einsatzes aber an der Lebensdauer des CO-2 gebunden ist, welches mehrere Tausend Jahre beträgt.

 

CDR- Maßnahmen hingegen müssten über einen sehr langen Zeitraum (viele Jahrzehnte) aufgebaut werden, ihr Einsatz könnte allerdings beendet werden, sobald die CO2 Konzentration wieder auf ein akzeptables Niveau gesenkt ist. Entsprechende Anstrengungen vorausgesetzt, könnte dies bereits nach einigen Hundert Jahren erreicht sein.

 

CDR Maßnahmen: sind relativ teuer und arbeiten viel zu langsam. Bis sie wirken würden, vergehen viele Jahrzehnte

 

Solar Radiation Management SRM Maßnahmen: billig.. und schnell..

 

 

Quelle: Institut für Technikfolgenabschätzung

 

 

 

 

 

Solar Radiation Management = SRM

 

Ironie der Geoengineering Forschung:

 

Ein früherer SRM Abbruch hätte einen abrupten sehr heftigen Klimawandel zur Folge, den wir in dieser Schnelligkeit und heftigen Form nie ohne diese SRM Maßnahmen gehabt hätten. 

 

Das, was Regierungen mit den globalen GEO-ENGINEERING-INTERVENTIONEN verhindern wollten, genau das wären dann die globalen Folgeschäden bei der frühzeitigen Beendigung der SRM Forschungs-Interventionen.

 

Wenn sie diese hoch giftigen SAI - Programme  aus wichtigen Gründen vorher abbrechen müssten, droht uns ein abrupter Klimawandel, der ohne diese GE-Programme nie dagewesen wäre. 

 

Das bezeichne ich doch mal  als wahre  reale Satire..