THE PARIS AGREEMENT AND CLIMATE GEOENGINEERING GOVERNANCE: THE NEED FOR A HUMAN RIGHTS-BASED COMPONENT
William C.G. Burns
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations
BECCS bioenergy with carbon capture and storage
CCS carbon capture and sequestration
CDR carbon dioxide removal
COP Conference of the Parties
CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child
CROZEX CROZet Natural Iron Bloom and EXport Experiment
DAC direct air capture
ECHR European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms EIA environmental impact assessment
GCM general circulation model
GeoMIP Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project
GBEP Global Bioenergy Partnership
GHGs greenhouse gases
HRBA human rights-based approach
HRIA human rights impact assessment
ICCPR International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
ICESCR International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
INDC intended nationally determined contribution
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
LDCs least developed countries
NETs negative emissions technologies
OHCHR Office of the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights
SAI sulphur aerosol injection
SBI Subsidiary Body for Implementation
SBSTA Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice
SRM solar radiation management
UDHR Universal Declaration of Human Rights
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNHRC United Nations Human Rights Council
WMO World Meteorological Organization
GtC gigatons carbon
GtCO2 gigatons carbon dioxide
TgS teragrams sulphur 1Tg =1 Megatonne
W/m2 watts per square metre
United Nations Human Rights Council [UNHRC], Human Rights and Climate Change, HRC Res 29/15, UNHRCOR, 29th Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/RES/29/15 (2 July 2015), online: . “Affirming that human rights obligations, standards and principles have the potential to inform and strengthen international, regional and national policymaking in the area of climate change”; UNHRC, Human Rights and Climate Change, HRC Res 26/27, UNHRCOR, 26th Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/ RES/26/27 (15 July 2014), online: . “Emphasizing that the adverse effects of climate change have a range of implications, both direct and indirect, for the effective enjoyment of human rights”; UNHRC, Human Rights and Climate Change, HRC Res 10/4, UNHRCOR, 10th Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/RES/10/4 (3 March 2009), online: . “Climate change-related impacts have a range of implications, both direct and indirect, for the effective enjoyment of human rights”; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [UNFCCC], The Cancun Agreements: Outcome of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention, FCCC Dec 1/CP.16, UNFCCC, 2010, UN Doc FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1 (2010), at para 8, online: [The Cancun Agreements]. Parties “should, in all climate change related actions, fully respect human rights”; Mary Robinson Foundation, Incorporating Human Rights into Climate Action, Version 1 (October 2014), at 4, online: . Forty-nine parties to the UNFCCC have made explicit references to human rights in their National Communications or National Adaptation Plans of Action.
UNFCCC, 9 May 1992, 1771 UNTS 107, 31 ILM 849 (entered into force 21 March 1994).
The Cancun Agreements, supra note 1 at para 8 [emphasis added]. While not explicitly referring to human rights impacts, the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC includes concordant language, providing that industrialized countries should strive to “minimize adverse social, environmental and economic impacts on developing country Parties” in terms of mitigation response measures. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 10 December 1997, 2303 UNTS 148, 37 ILM 22 art 3(14) (entered into force 16 February 2005) [Kyoto Protocol].
Kyoto Protocol, supra note 3.
Adaptation Fund Board, Environmental and Social Policy (November 2013), at para 15
UNHRC, Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the relationship between climate change and human rights, 15 January 2009, UN Doc A/HRC/10/61 at para 75, online: .
UNFCCC, COP, Paris Agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 12 December 2015, Dec CP.21, 21st Sess, UN Doc FCCC/CP/2015/L9, online: [Paris Agreement].
UNHRC, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment, 1 February 2016, 31st Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/31/52 at 6, online: .
Paris Agreement, supra note 7, Preamble
Basil Ugochukwu, Climate Change and Human Rights: How? Where? When?, CIGI, CIGI Papers No. 82, 27 November 2015 at 9. See also International Human
Rights Law Clinic, Miller Institute for Global Challenges and the Law, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law & Center for Law & Global Justice, University of San Francisco,
School of Law, “Protecting People and the Planet” (December 2009) at 7, online: .
The Royal Society, “Geoengineering the climate: science, governance and uncertainty (2009) at 11, online: .
Mason Inman, “Planning for Plan B” (17 December 2009) Nature Reports; Climate Change, online: ; Scott Barrett, “Solar Geoengineering’s Brave New World: Thoughts on the Governance of an Unprecedented Technology” (2014) 8:2 Rev Envtl Econ & Pol’y 249 at 266.
Robert L Olson, “Geoengineering for Decision Makers” (November 2011) Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars at 16, online: ; Toby Svoboda et al, “Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering: The Question of Justice” (2011) 25:3 Public Aff Q 157 at 165.
“A Charter for Geoengineering”, Editorial, (2012) 485 Nature 415 at 415; John Virgoe, “International Governance of a Possible Geoengineering Intervention to Combat Climate Change” (2009) 95 Climatic Change 103 at 119 [Virgoe].
Richard Owen, “Solar Radiation Management and the Governance of Hubris” (2014) 38 Issues in Environmental Science & Technology 212 at 220; Michael Burger & Jessica Wentz, Climate Change and Human Rights (2015) United Nations Environment Program [UNEP] at 10, online: .
Paris Agreement, supra note 7, art 2(1)(a).
See UNFCC, Report of the Conference of the Parties on its nineteenth session, held in Warsaw from 11 to 23 November 2013, Dec 1/ CP.19 Further advancing the Durban Platform, UN Doc FCCC/ CP/2013/10/Add.1 at para 2(b), online: [Durban Platform]; UNFCC, INDCs as communicated by Parties, online: .
Paris Agreement, supra note 7, art 4(2).
Joeri Rogelj et al, “Paris Agreement Climate Proposals Need a Boost to Keep Warming Well Below 2°C” (2016) 534 Nature 631 at 634; Climate Action Tracker, “Paris Agreement: stage set to ramp up climate action” (12 December 2015), online: ; World Resources Institute, “Why are INDC Studies Reaching Different Temperature Estimates?” (2015), online: . It should be emphasized that the Paris Agreement does provide for a “global stocktake” every five years “to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of this Agreement and its long-term goals,” with an eye to enhancing domestic and international commitments to meet the agreement’s overarching objectives, if necessary; Paris Agreement, supra note 7 at art 14. While this provision could help the parties to avoid passing the 2°C threshold, this would require strengthened commitments prior to the agreement entering in force and more ambitious long-term commitments; Wolfgang Obergassel et al, Phoenix from the Ashes — An Analysis of the Paris Agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (January 2016), online: Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy at 45. The world’s remaining “carbon budget” to avert passing the 2°C threshold may also be far lower than many current estimates given uncertainties about many critical parameters; Glen Peters, “The ‘Best Available Science’ to Inform 1.5°C Policy Choices” advance online publication: (11 April 2016) Nature Climate Change, DOI: <10.1038/nclimate3000>, online: www.nature.com/ nclimate/journal/vaop/ncurrent/pdf/nclimate3000.pdf at 1.
Carolyn W Snyder, “Evolution of Global Temperature Over the Past Two Million Years” (2016) Nature, doi: <10.1038/nature19798>: Even stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of GHGs at current levels could result in eventual warming of 5°C; Peter U Clark et al, “Consequences of Twenty-First Century Policy for Multi-Millennial Climate and Sea-Level Change” (2016) 6 Nature Climate Change 360 at 361.
UNFCCC, “Climate Change 2014, Synthesis Report, Summary for Policymakers” (2014), online: www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ ar5/syr/AR5_SYR_FINAL_SPM.pdf at 18, 19; Durban Platform, supra note 18; INDCs as Communicated by Parties, supra note 18; V Ramanathan & Y Feng, “On Avoiding Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference with the Climate System: Formidable Challenges Ahead” (2008) 105:3 Proceedings National Academy Sci 14245 at 14245
William CG Burns & Jane A Flegal, “Climate Geoengineering and the Role of Public Deliberation: A Comment on the US National Academy of Sciences’ Recommendations on Public Participation” (2015) 5 Climate L 252 at 254.
David G Victor, “On the Regulation of Geoengineering” (2008) 24:2 Oxford Rev Econ Pol’y 322 at 323. The concept of climatic geoengineering extends back to at least the 1830s when American meteorologist J. P. Espy suggested that lighting huge fires could stimulate convective updrafts and alter the intensity and frequency of precipitation. Philip J Rasch et al, “An Overview of Geoengineering of Climate Using Stratospheric Sulphate Aerosols” (2008) 366 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y 4,007 at 4,008. For a thorough historical treatment of weather and climate modification initiatives, see James Rodger Fleming, “The Pathological History of Weather and Climate Modification: Three Cycles of Promise and Hype” (2006) 37:1 Historical Stud in Physical Sci 3-25, online:
Robin Gregory, Terre Satterfield & Ariel Hasell, “Using Decision Pathway Surveys to Inform Climate Engineering Policy Choices” (2016) 113 Proceedings Natl Acad Sci 560 at 560; Shinichiro Asayama, “Catastrophism Toward ‘Opening Up’ or ‘Closing Down’? Going Beyond the Apocalyptic Future and Geoengineering” (2015) 63:1 Current Sociology 89 at 90. For a history of geoengineering over the past 50 years, see Wil Burns & Simon Nicholson, “Governing Climate Geoengineering” in Simon Nicholson & Sikina Jinnah, eds, New Earth Politics (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2016) 345.
US, US House Committee on Science and Technology and a Recommendation by the Chair for a Geoengineering Research Agenda, “Engineering the Climate: Research Needs and Strategies for International Coordination” (October 2010), online: at ii; UK, HC, Science and Technology Committee, “The Regulation of Geoengineering: Fifth Report of Session 2009-10” (10 March 2010), online: at 27 [UK Science and Technology Committee].
UK Science and Technology Committee,supra note 26.
The parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity at the 9th meeting of the Conference of the Parties in 2008 passed a resolution calling on the parties “to ensure that ocean fertilization activities do not take place until there is an adequate scientific basis on which to justify such activities... with the exception of small scale scientific research studies within coastal waters.” UNEP, Convention on Biological Diversity, Decision adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity: IX/16 Biological diversity and climate change, UN Doc UNEP/ CBD/COP/DEC/IX/16 (May 2008) online: at para 4. For further information on ocean fertilization climate geoengineering, see Ocean Iron Fertilization, infra. In 2010, the parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, and its Protocol, passed a resolution adopting an assessment framework for scientific research in context of ocean fertilization: International Maritime Organization, Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, Resolution LC-LP.2 (2010) on the Assessment Framework for Scientific Research Involving Ocean Fertilization, Third-Second Consultative Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the London Convention and the Fifth Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the London Protocol (14 October 2010), online: at para 1; International Maritime Organization, Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, Assessment Framework for Scientific Research Involving Ocean Fertilization (2010), online: . In 2013, the parties to the London Protocol amended the agreement to make the risk assessment procedure legally binding on all of its parties, as well as to potentially extend the regulatory purview of the protocol to other marine-based geoengineering options: International Maritime Organization, London Protocol to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972, Resolution LP.4(8) on the Amendment to the London Protocol to Regulate the Placement of Matter for Ocean Fertilization and Other Marine Geoengineering Activities (2013), online: .
Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, “European Transdisciplinary Assessment of Climate Engineering (EuTRACE)”, online: ; Eli Kintisch, Bill Gates Funding Geoengineering Research, Science (26 January 2010), Science, online: ; Cao Long et al, “Geoengineering: Basic Science and Ongoing Research Efforts in China” (2015) 6 Advances in Climate Change Research 188.
The Royal Society, supra note 12 at ix; National Research Council, US National Academy of Sciences, Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth (2015), online: www.nap.edu/catalog/18988/ climate-intervention-reflecting-sunlight-to-cool-earth at 6; National Research Council, US National Academy of Sciences, Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration (2015), online: www.nap.edu/catalog/18805/climate-intervention-carbondioxide-removal-and-reliable-sequestration at 107.
Adrian Cho, “To Fight Global Warming, Senate Calls for Study of Making Earth Reflect More Light, Science” (19 April 2016), online: . The bill, S 2084, inter alia, calls for the Department of Energy to study the US National Academy of Science’s 2015 Report on “albedo modification,” one of the two broad categories of climate geoengineering (see the section on Potential Risks Associated with Climate Geoengineering infra), and to “leverage existing computational and modeling capabilities to explore the potential impacts of albedo modification.” US, Bill S 2084, Energy and Water Development Appropriations Bill, 2017, 114th Cong, 2015-16.
IPCC, Working Group I Contribution on Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis (2013), online: www.climatechange2013. org/images/report/WG1AR5_ALL_FINAL.pdf at 29; IPCC, Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate, Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects (2014), online: at 92; IPCC, Working Group III Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change (2014), online: at 256.
Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change, supra note 32 at 41.
Suzanne Goldenberg, “UN Climate Science Chief: It’s Not Too Late to Avoid Dangerous Temperature Rise”, The Guardian, (11 May 2016), online: .
William CG Burns, “Geoengineering the Climate: An Overview of Solar Radiation Management Options” (2012) 46 Tulsa L Rev 283 at 286. Alternatively, some commentators divide climate geoengineering options into “short-wave” and “long-wave” approaches. See TM Lenton & NE Vaughan, “The Radiative Forcing Potential of Different Climate Geoengineering Options” (2009) 9 Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics 5539 at 5540. It should be emphasized, however, that some approaches denominated as “geoengineering,” including some carbon dioxide removal options, are closely akin to technologies for industrial carbon management, such as carbon capture and sequestration or land use, land use change and forestry, and, thus, might not be classified by everyone as “climate geoengineering.” Virgoe, supra note 15 at 104.
National Oceanographic & Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory, “The Earth’s Atmosphere”, online: .
J Feichter & T Leisner, “Climate Engineering: A Critical Review of Approaches to Modify the Global Energy Balance” (2009) 176 Eur Physical J 81 at 82.
Ibid; John T Hardy, Climate Change: Causes, Effects and Solutions (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2003) at 7.
Climate Central, “What is the greenhouse effect?” (7 November 2009), online: . Radiation from the sun peaks at a wavelength in the range of 0.4–0.7 µ, with small amounts of ultraviolet radiation down to 0.1 µ and small amounts of infrared radiation in the range of 3 µ. The earth, being much cooler, radiates energy at 15°C, with radiation emanation from ranges of 4–100 µ. Martin M Halmann & Meyer Steinberg, Greenhouse Gas Carbon Dioxide Mitigation (Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 1999) at 1
Hardy, supra note 38 at 8.
Julie Kerr Caspar, Changing Ecosystems: Effects of Global Warming (New York, NY: Facts on File, 2010).
Donald Kennedy & John A Riggs, eds, U.S. Policy and the Global Environment (Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute, 2000) at 11.
Carbon dioxide emissions, primarily linked to fossil fuel production, industrial processes and land-use change, have increased over 140 percent from pre-industrial levels. Methane emissions, with anthropogenic sources associated with ruminants, rice agriculture, fossil fuel exploitation, landfills and biomass burning, have increased 254 percent from pre-industrial levels. Nitrous oxide emissions have increased 121 percent from pre-industrial levels, with anthropogenic sources including soils, ocean, biomass burning, fertilizer use and industrial processes. Other anthropogenic GHGs contributing to warming include sulphur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons and halogenated gases, as well as hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons; World Meteorological Organization [WMO] & Global Atmosphere Watch (9 November 2015) 11 WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin (November 2015), online: . See also US Environmental Protection Agency, “Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data”, online: .
Rasmus E Benestad, “A Mental Picture of the Greenhouse Effect” (21 January 2016) Theoretical Applied Climatology 3, DOI: <10.1007/ s00704-016-1732-y>, online: .
Steve Connor, “Global warming: World already halfway towards threshold that could result in dangerous climate change, say scientists”, Independent (9 November 2015), online: .
Australia, Department of the Environment and Energy, “Enhanced Greenhouse Effect”, online: .
WMO, “Atmospheric Concentrations of the Greenhouse Gases that Cause Climate Change Continue to Rise”, online: .
JT Kiehl & Kevin E Trenberth, “Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget” (1997) 78:2 Bull American Meteorological Soc’y 197 at 198 (1997), online: .
Michael C MacCracken, “Beyond Mitigation: Potential Options for Counter-Balancing the Climatic and Environmental Consequences of the Rising Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases” (2009), World Bank Policy Research Working Paper at 15, online: .
The Royal Society, supra note 12 at 23.
Ibid at 34.
David P Keller, Ellias Y Feng & Andreas Oschlies, “Potential Climate Engineering Effectiveness and Side Effects During a High Carbon Dioxide-Emission Scenario” (25 February 2014) Nature Communications at 5–6, online: .
Lenton & Vaughan, supra note 35 at 5540.
Takanobu Kosugi, “Fail-Safe Solar Radiation Management Geoengineering” (2013) 18 Mitigation Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 1141 at 1142; Albert C Lin, “Balancing the Risks: Managing Technology and Dangerous Climate Change” (2009) 8(3) Issues in Leg Scholarship, art 2 at 4.
“Albedo is the fraction of incident sunlight that is reflected.” Albedo is measured on a 0–1 scale. If a surface absorbs all incoming sunlight, its albedo is 0; if it is perfectly reflecting, its albedo is 1. Arctic Coastal Ice Processes, Albedo, online: .
Philip Rasch, Written Testimony, US House Committee on Science and Technology Hearing, “Geoengineering IIe: The Scientific Basis and Engineering Challenges”, 4 February 2010, at 5, online: . There have also been suggestions of injecting preformed particles of other chemicals, e.g., titanium oxide, to effectuate more control over the process. Peter J Irvine et al, “An Overview of the Earth System Science of Solar Geoengineering” (2016) WIREs Climate Change at 7, DOI: <10.1002/2cc.423>.
J Hansen et al, “Earth’s Energy Imbalance and Implications” (2011) 11 Atmospheric Chemistry Physics 13421 at 13438.
Alan Robock et al, “Benefits, Risks and Costs of Stratospheric Geoengineering” (2009) 36 Geophysical Research Letters L19703 at 4–7.
MI Budyko, Climatic Changes, translated by Izmeniia Klimata (Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, 1977). “Sulfur in the stratosphere oxidizes via the reaction with the hydroxyl radical to sulfuric acid.... The sulfuric acid gas forms together with water vapor sulfate particles.... In the presence of aerosols sulfuric acid gas may condense onto pre-existing aerosol particles.” J Feichter & T Leisner, “Climate Engineering: A Critical Review of Approaches to Modify the Global Energy Balance” (2009) 176 Eur Physical J 81 at 86.
AV Eliseev, II Mokhov & AA Karpenko, “Global Warming Mitigation by Means of Controlled Aerosol Emissions into the Stratosphere: Global and Regional Peculiarities of Temperature Response as Estimated in IAP RAS CM Simulations” (2009) 22(4) Atmospheric Oceanic Optics 388 at 390. 1Tg = 1012 grams, or 1 million metric tons. Simone Tilmes, Rolf Müller & Ross Salawitch, “The Sensitivity of Polar Ozone Depletion to Proposed Geoengineering Schemes” (2008) 320 Science 1201 at 1202.
Philip J Rasch, Paul J Crutzen & Danielle B Coleman, “Exploring the Geoengineering of Climate Using Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosols: The Role of Particle Size” (2008) 35 Geophysical Research Letters L02809 at 3. “Injection of 1 Tg S/yr as small particles...reduces the warming equatorward of 40 degrees to <1K….” See also Paul J Crutzen, “Albedo Enhancement by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: A Contribution to Resolve a Policy Dilemma?” (2006) 77 Climatic Change 211 at 213. Stratospheric loading of 1-2 Tg S/yr required; Tom ML Wigley, “LowIntensity Geoengineering Should be Seriously Considered” (21 May 2008) Bull Atomic Scientists, online: www.thebulletin.org/web-edition/ roundtables/has-the-time-come-geoengineering. Peak load of 5 TgS/yr required between 2050 and 2060, declining back to zero by 2090.
Jason Blackstock, “Researchers Can’t Regulate Climate Engineering Alone” (2012) 486 Nature 159 at 159.
Rasch et al, supra note 24 at 4010.
Ben Kravitz, “Climate Engineering with Stratospheric Aerosols and Associated Engineering Parameters” (2012) National Academy of Engineering at 29, online: .
Richard A Kerr, “Pollute the Planet for Climate’s Sake?” (2008) 315 Science 401 at 401.
John Latham et al, “Global Temperature Stabilization via Controlled Albedo Enhancement of Low-Level Maritime Clouds” (2008) 366 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y 3969 at 3970.
“Cloud condensation nuclei are a subset of the atmospheric aerosol population, which undergo rapid growth into cloud droplets at a specified supersaturation.” Gregory C Roberts et al, “Cloud Condensation Nuclei in the Amazon Basin: ‘Marine’ Conditions Over a Continent?” (2001) 28:14 Geophysical Research Letters 2807 at 2807.
Keith Bower et al, “Computations Assessment of a Proposed Technique for Global Warming Mitigation via Albedo-Enhancement of Marine Stratocumulus Clouds” (2006) 82:1-2 Atmospheric Research 328 at 329.
RD Borys, DH Lowenthal & MA Wetzel, “Chemical and Microphysical Properties of Marine Stratiform Cloud” (1998) 103 J Geophysical Research: Atmospheres No. D17 at 22,073; Alan Robock et al, “Studying Geoengineering with Natural and Anthropogenic Analogs” (2013) 121 Climatic Change 445 at 452.
Bower et al, supra note 69 at 329.
Andy Jones, John Latham & Michael H Smith, “Radiative Forcing Due to Modification of Marine Stratocumulus Clouds” National Center for Atmospheric Research at 1, online: www.mmm.ucar.edu/ people/latham/files/cloud_albedo_gcm_modelling_paper.pdf.
Lenton & Vaughan, supra note 35 at 5548; Philip Rasch, C-C (Jack) Chen & John Latham, “Global Temperature Stabilisation via Cloud Albedo Enhancement: Geoengineering Options to Respond to Climate Change” Response to National Academy Call, online: .
Oliver Morton, “Great White Hope” (2009) 458 Nature 1097 at 1099
Lenton & Vaughan, supra note 35 at 5548.
Stephen Salter, Graham Sortino & John Latham, “Sea-Going Hardware for the Cloud Albedo Method of Reversing Global Warming” (2008) 366 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y 3989 at 3994, 4004.
Morton, supra note 74.
Takanobu Kosugi, “Role of Sunshades in Space as a Climate Control Option” (2010) 67 Acta Astronautica 241 at 242.
The Royal Society, supra note 12 at 32.
Roger Angel, “Feasibility of Cooling the Earth with a Cloud of Small Spacecraft Near the Inner Lagrange Point (L1)” (2006) 103:46 Proceedings Nat’l Acad Sci 17184 at 17184.
Katharine Ricke et al, “Unilateral Engineering”, Non-technical Briefing Notes for a Workshop at the Council on Foreign Relations Washington DC, 5 May 2008 at 6, online: . The Lagrange L1 point is about 900,000 miles from the earth. The Royal Society, supra note 12 at 32. The plan, developed by Roger Angel at the University of Arizona, contemplates the production of approximately 15 trillion silicon discs about 60-70 centimeters across; the discs would be studded with holes that could scatter incoming light. David L Chandler, “Global Shades” (21 July 2007) New Science at 44.
David W Keith, “Geoengineering the Climate: History and Prospect” (2000) 25 Annual Rev Energy & Environment 245 at 263.
B Govindasamy, K Caldeira & PB Duffy, “Geoengineering Earth’s Radiation Balance to Mitigate Climate Change from a Quadrupling of CO2 ” (2003) 37 Global & Planetary Change 157 at 167.
Angel, supra note 80 at 17,189.
Eric Bickel & Lee Lane, “An Analysis of Climate Engineering as a Response to Climate Change”, Copenhagen Consensus Center (2009) at 48, online: .
Daniel J Lunt, “Sunshades for Solar Radiation” in Tim Lenton & Naomi Vaughan, eds, Geoengineering Responses to Climate Change (New York, NY: Springer, 2013) 19.
Timothy Lenton, “The Global Potential for Carbon Dioxide Removal” (2014) in RM Harrison & RE Hester, eds, Geoengineering of the Climate System (Washington, DC: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014) 53.
Lenton & Vaughan, supra note 35 at 5540.
The Royal Society, supra note 12 at 34. SRM methods could begin returning temperatures back to pre-indusrial conditions “within a few years of deployment”.
P Ciasis et al, “Carbon and other Biogeochemical Cycles, in Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis Contribution of Working Group I to the First Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2013) at 546, online: .
Sabine Mathesius et al, “Long-Term Response of Oceans to CO2 Removal from the Atmosphere” (2015) 5 Nature Climate Change 1117 at 1117 (2015).
Lenton & Vaughan, supra note 35 at 5556
RS Lampitt et al, “Ocean Fertilization: A Potential Means of Geoengineering?” (2008) 366 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y 3919 at 3920.
Sallie W Chisholm, Paul G Falkowski & John J Cullen, “Dis-Crediting Ocean Fertilization” (2001) 294 Science 309 at 309.
Michelle Allsopp, David Santillo & Paul Johnston, “A Scientific Critique of Ocean Iron Fertilization as a Climate Change Mitigation Strategy” (September 2007) Greenpeace Research Labs Technical Note 07/2007 at 5, online: .
Kenneth R Arrigo, “Marine Microorganisms and Global Nutrient Cycles” (2005) 437 Nature 349 at 355.
Sanjay K Singh et al, “Response of Bacterioplankton to Iron Fertilization of the Southern Ocean, Antarctica” (2015) Frontiers in Microbiology 1 at 2, DOI: <10.3389/fmicb.2015.00863>, online: ; Victor Smetacek et al, “Deep Carbon Export from a Southern Ocean Iron-Fertilized Diatom Bloom” (2012) 487 Nature 313 at 313. Such areas comprise approximately 20 percent of the surface ocean; Long Cao & Ken Caldeira, “Can Ocean Iron Fertilization Mitigate Ocean Acidification?” (2010) 99 Climatic Change 303 at 304.
Matthew Hubbard, “Barometer Rising: The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety as a Model for Holistic International Regulation of Ocean Fertilization Projects and Other Forms of Geoengineering” (2016) 40 Wm & Mary Envtl L & Pol’y Rev 591 at 598; Christine Bertram, “Ocean Iron Fertilization in the Context of the Kyoto Protocol and the Post-Kyoto Process” (2010), 8 Energy Pol’y 1130 at 1130.
V Melissa Eick, “A Navigational System for Uncharted Waters: The London Convention and London Protocol’s Assessment Framework on Ocean Iron Fertilization” (2010) 46 Tulsa L Rev 351 at 357; Victor Smetacek & SWA Maqvi, “The Next Generation of Iron Fertilization Experiments in the Southern Ocean” (2008) 366 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y 3947 at 3956; F Joos, JL Sarmiento & U Siegenthaler, “Estimates of the Effect of Southern Ocean Fertilization on Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations” (2001) 349 Nature 772 at 773.
Ciasis et al, supra note 91 at 551.
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, “Scientific Synthesis of the Impacts of Ocean Fertilization on Marine Biodiversity” (2009) CBD Technical Series No 45 at 22, online: . See also US Government Accountability Office, Center for Science, Technology and Engineering, “Climate Engineering” Technology Assessment (July 2011) at 29, online: .
Alisher Mirzabaev et al, “Bioenergy, Food Security and Poverty Reduction” (July 2014) Center for Development Research, University of Bonn, Working Paper No 135 at 11; Venkatesh Balan, “Current Challenges in Commercially Producing Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass” (2014) 12 Intl Scholarly Research Notices: Biotechnology 1 at 4–5; Ayhan Demirbas, “Bioenergy, Global Warming, and Environmental Impacts” (2010) 26 Energy Sources 225 at 226.
Steve Rackley, Carbon Capture and Storage (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009) at 21.
Joris Kornneeff et al, “Global Potential for Biomass and Carbon Dioxide Capture, Transport and Storage up to 2050” (2012) 11 Intl J Greenhouse Gas Control 117 at 118
US Environmental Protection Agency, “Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration”, online: ; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (2005) “Special Report: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage” 195–307, online: . Terrestrial storage options include depleted reservoirs for oil and gas and deep saline aquifers: Ben Caldecott, Guy Lomax & Mark Workman, “Stranded Carbon Assets and Negative Emissions Technologies” (February 2015) Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford, Working Paper at 18, online:
Rowan Oloman, “Carbon Recycling: An Alternative to Carbon Capture and Storage” (August 2009) 236:8 Pipeline & Gas J, online: ; Alexandra B Klass & Elizabeth J Wilson, “Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Identifying and Managing Risks” (2009) 8:3 Art 1 Issues in Leg Scholarship 1 at 6, online: ; Peter Maloney, “General Electric Seeks to Capture CO2 for Storage, Utility Dive”, 12 March 2016, online: .
T Gasser et al, “Negative Emissions Physically Needed to Keep Global Warming Below 2°C” (2015) 6 Nature Communications Art No 7958 at 2; UK Parliament, Parliamentary Office of Science & Technology, “Negative Emissions Technologies” (October 2013) POSTnote 447 at 1, online: .
C Gough & NE Vaughan, “Synthesizing Existing Knowledge on the Feasibility of BECCS” (February 2015) AVOID2 at 5, online: .
IPCC, Fifth Assessment Report, Working Group III, Ch 6, “Assessing Transformation Pathways” at 93; Etsushi Kato & Yoshiki Yamagata, “BECCS Capability of Dedicated Bioenergy Crops under a Future Land-Use Scenario Targeting Net Negative Carbon Emissions” (2014) 2 Earth’s Future 421 at 421. “Of the 400 [IPCC] scenarios that have a 50% or better chance of no more than 2°C warming…344 assume the successful and large-scale uptake of negative-emission technologies;” Kevin Anderson, “Duality in Climate Science” (2015) 8 Nature Geoscience 989 at 989 .
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Caldecott, Lomax & Workman, supra note 106 at 19, 22.
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Duncan McClaren, “Capturing the Imagination: Prospects for Direct Air Capture as a Climate Measure” (25 March 2014) Geoengineering our Climate? Ethics, Politics and Governance, Case Study at 1-2, online: .
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Manya Ranjan & Howard J Herzog, “Feasibility of Air Capture” (2011) 4 Energy Procedia 2869 at 2870; David Keith, “Why Capture CO2 from the Atmosphere?” (2009) 325 Science 1654 at 1655.
Caldecott, Lomax & Workman, supra note 106 at 7.
Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth, supra note 30 at 75.
Caldecott, Lomax & Workman, supra note 106 at 22.
Socolow et al, supra note 116 at i; Ranjan & Herzog, supra note 120 at 2875.
Xiaoyang Shi, “Capture CO2 from Ambient Air Using Nanoconfined Iron Hydration” (2016) 128 Angewandte Chemie 4094 to 97; Chen & Massimo Tavoni, “Direct Air Capture of CO2 and Climate Stabilization: A Model Based Assessment” (2013) 118 Climatic Change 59 at 60; Geoffrey Holmes & David W Keith, “An Air-Liquid Contractor for Large-Scale Capture of CO2 from Air” (2012) 370 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y A 4380–4403.
Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth, supra note 30 at 75.
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H Damon Matthews & Ken Caldeira, “Transient Climate-Carbon” (2007) 104:2 Proceedings Natl Acad Sci 9951
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Eli Kintisch, “Scientists Say Continued Warming Warrants Closer Look at Drastic Fixes” (2007) 318 Science 1054 at 1055.
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William CG Burns, “Climate Geoengineering: Solar Radiation Management and its Implications for Intergenerational Equity” (2011) 4 Stanford JL Science & Pol’y 37 at 46-9, online: ; Brewer, supra note 158 at 9915; Kintisch, supra note 160 at 1055.
Andy Jones et al, “The Impact of Abrupt Suspension of Solar Radiation Management (Termination Effect) in Experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)” (2013) 118 J Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 9743 at 9749.
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Caldecott, Lomax & Workman, supra note 106 at 16.
Ibid. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, “Biofuels and Biodiversity” (2012) CBD Technical Series No 65 at 9, online: ; Committee on the Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels et al, “Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels in the United States” (2012) at 157–202, online: . Moreover, some studies have even suggested that lignocellulosic biofuels might require more land than first generation biofuels.
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Actionaid, Caught in the Net: How The ‘Net-Zero Emissions’ Will Delay Real Climate Action and Drive Land Grabs (June 2015) at 7, online: . Some studies have attributed 30 percent of grain price increases from 2000 to 2007 to demand for biofuels; Mark W Rosegrant, “Biofuels and Grain Prices: Impacts and Policy Responses” (2008) at 2, online: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Bamikole Amigun, Josephine Kaviti Musango & William Stafford, “Biofuels and Sustainability in Africa” (2011) 15 Renewable & Sustainable Energy Rev 1360 at 1362.
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Oxfam International, “Climate Wrongs and Human Rights: Putting People at the Heart of Climate-Change Policy (2008) at 15–16. See also Center for Human Rights and Global Justice, Foreign Land Deals and Human Rights: Case Studies on Agricultural and Biofuel Investment (New York: NYU School of Law, 2010).
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Actionaid, supra note 188 at 7. See also Evadné Grant & Onita Das, “Land Grabbing, Sustainable Development and Human Rights” (2015) 4:2 Transnatl Envtl L at 289–317; Lili Fuhr, The Myth of NetZero Emissions (10 December 2014), online: Heinrich Böll Foundation .
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See e.g. UDHR, supra note 235, art 25 (part of the right to an adequate standard of living); CRC, supra note 224; International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, supra note 229, art 25(f); Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, supra note 222, art 12; African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, supra note 231 (implicit in arts 4, 16, and 22).
ICESCR supra note 220, art 11(2).
OHCHR, supra note 6 at 9.
255 UNHRC, Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment 12: The Right to Adequate Food, 12 May 1999, UN Doc E/C/12/1999/5 at paras 3, 4, 13.
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OHCHR & World Health Organization, “The Right to Health: Fact Sheet No. 31” at 9, online: .
ICESCR, supra note 220, art 12.
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“The Right to Health: Fact Sheet No. 31”, supra note 260 at 25.
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UNHRC, Human Rights and Access to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation, 30 September 2010, UN Doc A/HRC/RES/15/9.
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See e.g. Council of Europe, European Social Charter, 18 October 1961, 529 UNTS 89, ETS 35, online: ; American Convention on Human Rights, supra note 228 and the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights,supra note 231.
Supra notes 129–135 and accompanying text. 273 Caitlin G McCormack et al, “Key Impacts of Climate Engineering on Biodiversity and Ecosystems, with Priorities for Future Research” (2016) J Integrative Envtl Sci 1 at 12 (2016), online: . 274 UDHR, supra note 235, art 3. 275 ICCPR, supra note 219, art 6(1).
276 See e.g. Arab Charter on Human Rights, supra note 232 at art 5-6; Organization of African Unity, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, 11 July 1990, OAU Doc CAB/LEG/24.9/49 (entered into force 29 November 1999), art 5, online: ; ECHR, supra note 230, art 2; American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, supra note 227, art 1; American Convention on Human Rights, supra note 228, art 4.
See e.g. Human Rights Act, 1998 (UK), c 42, Schedule 1, online: ; Constitution Act, 1982, being Schedule B to the Canada Act 1982 (UK), c 11, s 7, online: ; Paraguay’s Constitution of 1992 with Amendments Through 2011, art 4, online: ; The Constitution of India as of 9 November 2015, art 21, online: .
UNHRC, CCPR General Comment No. 6: Article 6 (Right to Life), 30 April 1982, art 6(1); UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment 14, supra note 262 at para 5 [UNHRC General Comment No. 6]. Indeed, some commentators argue that the right to life has jus cogens status. See BG Ramcharan, The Right to Life in International Law (Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1985).
UNHRC General Comment No. 6, supra note 278, art 6.
Valesquez Rodriquez Case (29 July 1988) Inter-Am Ct HR (Ser C) No 4 at 70 to 71; United Nations Environment Program & Center for International Environmental Law, UNEP Compendium on Human Rights and the Environment (2014), summarizing Budayeva and Others v. Russia (2008), Eur Ct HR App No 15339/0 at 85, online: .
UNHRC General Comment No. 6, supra note 278, art 6; Randall S Abate, “Climate Change, the United States and the Impacts of Arctic Melting: A Case Study in the Need for Enforceable International Environmental Human Rights” (2007) 26:1 Fla A&M U Col L Scholarly Commons 4 at 11, online: ; Indigenous Community Sawhoyamaxa v. Paraguay (29 March 2006), 2006 Inter-Am Ct HR (Ser C) No 146 at para 153.
Supra notes 210–213 and accompanying text.
See the section titled “The Threat of a Termination Effect”, supra.
McCormack et al, supra note 273 at 18.
Ibid at 12.
Ibid; Lynn M Russell et al, “Ecosystem Impacts of Geoengineering: A Review for Developing a Science Plan” (2012) 41 Ambio 350 at 361.
UNHRC, supra note 9 at 9. 288
Roubina Bassous/Ghattas, “Biodiversity and Human Rights from a Palestinian Perspective”, online: The Applied Research Institute – Jerusalem/Society ; Tim Hayward, “Biodiversity, Human Rights and Sustainability” (July 2001), online: Botanic Gardens Conservation International .
289 UDHR, supra note 235, art 25(1).
Ryan Hartzell C Balisacan, “Harmonizing Biodiversity Conservation and the Human Right to Livelihood: Towards a Viable Model for Sustainable Community-Based Ecotourism Using Lessons from the Donsol Whale Shark Project” (2012), 57 Ateneo LJ 423 at 438.
Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries, supra note 223, art 15(1); United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, supra note 239, art 8(2)(b).
Paris Agreement, supra note 7.
Margaux J Hall, “Advancing Climate Justice and the Right to Health Through Procedural Rights” (June 2014) 16(1) Health & Hum Rts 8 at 15. See also Ken Conca, An Unfinished Foundation (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2015) at 147. HRBAs’ value “does not come from formal affirmations of such synergies, or even from the articulation of obligations facing states. It comes, ultimately, from the empowerment of people.”
Alessandra Lundström Sarelin, “Human Rights-Based Approaches to Development Cooperation, HIV/AIDS, and Food Security” (2007) 29:2 Hum Rts Q 460 at 479, online: .
Damilolo S Olawuyi, “Advancing Climate Justice in International Law: An Evaluation of the United Nations Human Rights-Based Approach” (2016) 11:1 Fla A&M UL Rev 1 at 9.
Mariya Gromilova, “Revisiting Planned Relocation as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy: The Added Value of a Human RightsBased Approach” (2014) 10:1 Utrecht L Rev 76 at 91.
Stephen Turner, A Global Environmental Right (New York, NY: Routledge, 2014) at 29-30.
Aled Dilwyn Fisher, A Human-Rights Based Approach to Environment and Climate Change (March 2014), online: GI-ESCR Practitioner’s Guide ; Leslie London, “What Is a Human Rights Based Approach to Health, and Does It Matter?” (January 2008) 10:1 Health & Hum Rts 65–80, online: ; United Nations, HRBA Portal, “The Human Rights Based Approach to Development Cooperation: Toward a Common Understanding Among UN Agencies”, online: . Andrea Cornwall & Celestine Nyamu-Musembi, “Putting the ‘Rights-Based Approach’ to Development into Perspective” (2004) 25:8 Third World Q 1415–1437, online: .
International Human Rights Law Clinic, supra note 11 at 15; UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Human Displacement: A UNHCR Perspective (14 August 2009) at 11, online:
The World Bank & Nordic Trust Fund, supra note 246 at 1.
A Neil Craik et al, Procedural Governance of Field Experiments in Solar Radiation Management (March 2015), IASS/CIGI Workshop Report at 10, online: . See also Case Concerning Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v Uruguay)  ICJ Rep (20 April 2010) at paras 204, 205; environmental impact assessment required “where there is a risk that the proposed industrial activity may have a significant adverse impact in a transboundary context”. UNFCCC, supra note 2 at art 4(1) (f); parties to utilize processes such as EIAs to minimize impacts of projects to mitigate or adapt to climate change. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, Assessment Framework for Scientific Research Involving Ocean Fertilization, supra note 28 at 6-18. Convention on Biological Diversity, 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties, COP10 Decision X/33 (2010); requiring ex ante environmental assessment of any proposed small-scale geoengineering scientific research. State of Rhode Island, General Assembly, The Climate Geoengineering Act of 2016, House Bill 7578 (2016), online: ; proposed bill would, inter alia, require environmental impact assessment for geoengineering research with potential atmospheric impacts above a critical threshold.
OHCHR, Frequently Asked Questions on a Human Rights-Based Approach to Development Cooperation (2006) at 16, online: .
UNICEF, A Human Rights-Based Approach to Programming for Material Mortality Reduction in a South Asian Context (2003) at 25, online:
Gaither de Beco, “Human Rights Indicators: From Theoretical to Practical Application” (2013) 5:2 J Hum Rts Prac 380 at 380.
306 United Nations Human Rights Instruments, “Report on Indicators for Promoting and Monitoring the Implementation of Human Rights” (6 June 2008) HRI/MC/2008/3 at 10–13, online: . Oliver De Schutter, “A Human Rights Approach to Trade and Investment Policies” (November 2008), online: Conference on Confronting the Global Food Challenge at 18
de Beco, supra note 305 at 383.
General circulation models seek to numerically simulate the response of the global climate system to perturbations, such as GHG emissions, or in the case of solar radiation management, interventions such as SAI, by representing pertinent physical processes in the atmosphere, oceans, cryosphere and land surfaces. The climate is depicted through a three-dimensional grid laid over the earth. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “What is a GCM?”, online: . See also B Geerts & E Linacre, “What are General Circulation Models?”, online: University of Wyoming .
Peter J Irvine, Andy Ridgwell & Daniel J Lung, “Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering Impacts” (2010) 37 Geophysical Research Letters L18702 at 1.
GeoMIP, “Welcome”, online: climate.envsci.rutgers.edu/GeoMIP/ index.html
Nick Pidgeon, “Deliberating Stratospheric Aerosols for Climate Geoengineering and the SPICE Project” (2013) 3 Nature Climate Change 451 at 454.
UNHRC, supra note 9 at 15.
UDHR, supra note 235, art 19.
ICCPR, supra note 219, art 19.
UNFCCC, supra note 2, art 6(a)(ii).
Paris Agreement, supra note 7, art 12.
Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, 25 June 1998, 2161 UNTS 447; 38 ILM 517 art 4(4) (entered into force 30 October 2001) [Aarhus Convention].
UNHRC, Report of the Independent Expert on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment, UNHRCOR, 25th Sess, U.N Doc A/HRC/25/53 (2013) at 9.
UDHR, supra note 235, art 21.
ICCPR, supra note 219, art 25; African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, supra note 231, art 13; American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, supra note 227, art 20; American Convention on Human Rights,supra note 228, art 23; Declaration on the Right to Development, A/RES/41/128, 4 December 1986, 97th Plenary Meeting, art 1(1), online:
UNFCCC, supra note 2, art 6(a)(iii). See also UNFCCC, Report of the Conference of the Parties on its thirteenth session, held in Bali from 3 to 15 December 2007, 14 March 2008, UN Doc FCCC/CP/2007/6/Add.1, Decision 9/CP.13, Amended New Delhi Work Programme on Article 6 of the Convention, Annex, at para 15, online: .
Paris Agreement, supra note 7, art 12.
World Charter for Nature, GA Res 37/7, UNGAOR, 37th Sess, Supp No. 51, UN Doc A/37/51 (1982) at 17.
Aarhus Convention, supra note
arts 3(2), 6.
“In public communication, information is conveyed from the sponsors of the initiative to the public.... In public consultation, information is conveyed from members of the public to the sponsors of the initiative, following a process initiated by the sponsor. Significantly, no formal dialogue exists between individual members of the public and sponsors. The information elicited from the public is believed to represent currently help opinions on the topic in question.” Gene Rowe & Lynn J Frewer, “A Typology of Public Engagement Mechanisms” (2005) 30 Sci, Tech & Hum Values 251 at 254–55, online:
Paul Anderson, “Which Direction for International Environmental Law?” (2015) 6:1 J Hum Rts & Envt 98 at 121.
Ibid. J Dryzek, “Ecology and Discursive Democracy” in M O’Connor, ed, Is Capitalism Sustainable? Political Economy and the Politics of Ecology (New York and London: Guilford Press, 1994) 176.
S Chambers, Reasonable Democracy: Jürgen Habermas and the Politics of Discourse (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003) 309.
J Bohman, Public Deliberation: Pluralism, Complexity, and Democracy (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2000) at 27.
Jason Chilvers, “Reflexive Engagement? Actors, Learning, and Reflexivity in Public Dialogue on Science and Technology” (2012) 35:3 Science Communications 283 at 287; P Macnaghten et al, “Responsible Innovation Across Borders: Tensions, Paradoxes and Possibilities” (2014) 1:2 J Responsible Innovation 191 at 194; Bronislaw Szerszynski & Maialen Galarraga, “Geoengineering Knowledge: Interdisciplinarity and the Shaping of Climate Engineering Research” (2013) 45 Envt & Planning A 2817 at 2819.
Burns, supra note 23 at 268, 269.
Holly Joan Buck, “Geoengineering: Re-Making Climate for Profit or Humanitarian Intervention?” (2012) 43 Dev & Change 253 at 268.
The Pew Charitable Trusts, “High Seas Environmental Assessments”, 15 March 2016, online: ; Neil Craik, The International Law of Environmental Impact
Assessment (Campbridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008) 67; Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context, 25 February 1991, 1989 UNTS 310, 30 ILM 800 (entered into
force 10 September 1997) at art 5(a), online: ; National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 USC § 4321 (1969) at §4332, online: ; National Wildlife Federation v. National Marine Fisheries
Service (2016), 2016 WL 2353647 (Oregon Dist Ct) at 59; EC, Directive 2014/52/EU of the European Parliament and Council of 16 April 2014 amending Directive 2011/92/EU on the assessment of the
effects of certain public and private projects on the environment,  OJ L124/1 at art 5(1)(d), Annex IV.4.
Lee Lane, “Researching Solar Radiation Management as a Climate Policy Option” (5 November 2009), online: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research . See also Rob Bellamy, Jason Chilvers & Naomi E Vaughan, “Deliberative Mapping of Options for Tackling Climate Change: Citizens and Specialists ‘Open Up’ Appraisal of Geoengineering” (September 2014) Pub Understanding Sci 1 at 2; David G Victor et al, “The Geoengineering Option: A Last Resort Against Global Warming?” (March/April 2009) 88:2 Foreign Aff 64 at 66.
Joshua B Horton, “The Emergency Framing of Solar Engineering: Time for a Different Approach” (2015) 2:2 Anthropocene Rev 147 at 148; Sanna Joronen, “Climate Change and Ethics of Geoengineering – Implications of Climate Engineering Ethics” (2015) 32 Reports from the Department of Philosophy, University of Turku at 72-3, online: .
Black carbon is a constituent element of the combustion product known as soot. Indoor sources are primarily due to cooking with biofuels, including dung, wood and crop residue. The primary outdoor source is attributable to fossil fuel combustion (diesel and coal), open biomass burning and cooking with biofuels. V Ramanathan & G Carmichael, “Global and Regional Climate Changes Due to Black Carbon” (2008) 1 Nature Geoscience 221 at 221. Recent studies indicate that black carbon emissions are the second largest contributor to global warming, as much as 55 percent of the forcing associated with carbon dioxide. TC Bond, “Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific Assessment” (2013) 118 J Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 5380 at 5380: “Reducing Black Carbon, or Soot, May Be Fastest Strategy for Slowing Climate Change” (22 April 2008), IGSD/INECE Climate Briefing Note, online: . Measures to reduce black carbon that may prove highly cost-beneficial include the use of diesel particulate filters for diesel engines and industrial sources, as well as other industrial control technologies, widespread adoption of advanced cook stoves, and banning or reducing the burning of agricultural waste and fuel switching; Drew Shindell et al, “Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and Improving Health and Food Security” (2012) 335 Science 183 at 183; US Environmental Protection Agency, “Mitigating Black Carbon”, online: ; US Department of State, “The Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants” (6 February 2012), online: . Tropospheric ozone, precipitated by sunlight-driven oxidation of so-called ozone precursors, especially methane, exerts a substantial short-term greenhouse effect. UNEP, Near-Term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits: Actions for Controlling Short-Lived Climate Forcers vii (2011), online: . The primary methods to reduce tropospheric ozone involve reducing methane emissions; Environmental and Energy Study Institute, “Short-Lived Pollutants: Why are they Important?” (February 2013), online: . Methods to reduce methane emissions include diversion of waste into sanitary landfills or, for onsite power generation, capturing fugitive emissions from energy production and other sources, capturing emissions from livestock manure and intermittent aeration of flooded rice paddies; Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development, “Primer on Short-Lived Climate Pollutants” (February 2013), online: ; World Bank, “Integration of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants in World Bank Activities” (June, 2013), online: at 21.
UNEP, “Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone: Summary for Decision Makers” (February 2011) UN Doc UNEP/GC/26/INF/20 at 3, online: . See also Shindell et al, supra note 337 at 187–88; Almut Arneth et al, “Clean the Air, Heat the Planet?” (2009) 326 Science 672 at 672.
UNEP, supra note 338.
340 UNEP and WMO, “Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone” (2011), online: at 246.
Ibid. See alsoJianfei Peng et al, “Markedly Enhanced Absorption and Direct Radiative Forcing of Black Carbon Under Polluted Urban Environments” (2016) 113:16 Proceedings Natl Acad Sci 4266 at 4268, 4269.
Horton, supra note 336 at 150.
Michael Zürn & Stefan Schäfer, “The Paradox of Climate Engineering” (2013) 4:3 Global Pol’y 1 at 9.
Douglas G MacMartin, Ken Caldeira & David W Keith, “Solar Geoengineering to Limit the Rate of Temperature Change” (2014) 372 Philosophical Transactions Royal Soc’y A 20140134 at 6–11; limiting magnitude and duration of deployment of SRM with objective of restricting decadal temperature increases to 0.1°C could reduce risks of adverse impacts, such as depletion of the ozone layer.
Takanobu Kosugi, “Fail-Safe Solar Radiation Management Geoengineering” (2013) 18 Mitigation Adaptation Strategies Global Change 1141 at 1159. See also S. Tilmes, B.M. Sanderson & B.C. O’Neill, “Climate Impacts of Geoengineering in a Delayed Mitigation Scenario,” Geophysical Research Letters (2016), DOI: <10.1002/2016GL070122>.
Methods to Monitor the Human Right to Adequate Food, Volume II (Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2008) at 38; Urban Jonsson, Human Rights Approach to Development Programming, (2003), online: UNICEF at 15.
United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Applying a Human Rights-Based Approach to Development Cooperation and Programming: A UNDP Capacity Development Resource (2006), online: at 8.
Maarten Immink & Margaret Vidar, “Monitoring the Human Right to Adequate Food at Country Level” in Gudmundur Alfredsson et al, eds, International Human Rights Monitoring Mechanisms, 2nd ed, (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill|Nijhoff, 2009) at 322.
Slade, Bauen & Gross, supra note 196 at 103.
The Global Bioenergy Partnership Sustainability Indicators for Bioenergy (2011), online: Global Bioenergy Partnership www.globalbioenergy. org/fileadmin/user_upload/gbep/docs/Indicators/The_GBEP_ Sustainability_Indicators_for_Bioenergy_FINAL.pdf. See also Yoshiko Naiki, “Trade and Bioenergy: Explaining and Assessing the Regime Complex for Sustainable Bioenergy” (2016) 27:1 Eur J Intl L 129 at 142–44.
UNHRC, Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the relationship between climate change and human rights, 15 January 2009, UNHRCOR, 10th Sess, UN Doc A/HRC/10/61, online: ; Gromilova, supra note 296 at 91.
For example, the International Council on Human Rights Policy has also advocated application of an HRBA in the context of climate change policymaking; International Council on Human Rights Policy, Climate Change and Human Rights: A Rough Guide 9 (2008), online: .
Center for International Environmental Law, Human Rights and Climate Change: Practice Steps for Implementation (2009), online: at 1–32.
Naomi Roht-Arriaza, “Human Rights in the Climate Change Regime” (2010) 1:2 J Hum Rts & Envt 211 at 232.
UNFCCC, supra note 2, art 10(1).
358 Ibid, art 9(1).
359 Ibid, art 9(2)(b).
Kyoto Protocol, supra note 3 at art 15(1); Paris Agreement, supra note 7 at art 18(1).
UNFCCC, “Forum on the impact of the implementation of response measures”, online: .
UNFCCC, Report of the Conference of the Parties on its twenty-first session, held in Paris from 30 November to 13 December 2015, 29 January 2016, UN Doc FCCC/CP/2015/10/Add.2, Dec 11/CP.21, Forum and Work Programme on the Impact of Implementation of Response Measures, online: .
Center for International Environmental Law, supra note 355 at 29.
See note 354 and accompanying text. Another alternative would be to establish an expert group on human rights. While such groups are composed of experts acting in their personal capacity and don’t have the same status as the official Subsidiary Bodies of the UNFCCC, they could provide the parties with some guidance, as does the least developed countries (LDCs) Expert Group, which supports developing countries in the preparation of their National Adaptation Programs of Action. UNFCCC, LDC Expert Group, online: .
Paris Agreement, supra note 7, art 13(4).
Mary Robinson Foundation, supra note 1 at 7.
Center for International Environmental Law & CARE International, Climate Change: Tackling the Greatest Human Rights Challenge of Our Time (2015), online: at 10.
Stephen M Gardiner, “The Desperation Argument for Geoengineering” (2013) 46:1 Political Science & Politics 28 at 29.
See notes 245–248 and accompanying text.
Edward Cameron & Marc Limon, “Restoring the Climate by Realizing Rights: The Role of the International Human Rights System” (2012) 21 RECEIL 204 at 212.
Marc Limon, “Human Rights and Climate Change: Constructing a Case for Political Action” (2009) 33 Harv Envtl L Rev 439 at 458. See also Sigrun I Skogly, “Extra-National Obligations Towards Economic and Social Rights” (2002) International Council on Human Rights Policy, Council Meeting, Background Paper, online: at 1.
McInerney-Lankford, supra note 233 at 40.
Beth van Schaack, “The United States’ Position on the Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights Obligations: Now is the Time for Change” (2014) 90 Intl L Stud 20 at 25.
UDHR, supra note 235, art 30. 378 ICESCR, supra note 220, art 2(1) [emphasis added].
General Comment 12, supra note 255 at paras 36–42.
General Comment 14, supra note 262 at para 39.
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, supra note 227 at Preamble [emphasis added]. 382 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No 5 (2003): General measures of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 27 November 2003, 34th Sess, UN Doc CRC/ GC/2003/5 at para 7, online: .382 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No 5 (2003): General measures of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 27 November 2003, 34th Sess, UN Doc CRC/ GC/2003/5 at para 7, online:
UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No 5 (2003): General measures of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 27 November 2003, 34th Sess, UN Doc CRC/ GC/2003/5 at para 7, online: .
ICCPR, supra note 219, art 2(1) [emphasis added].
Rolf Künnemann, “Extraterritorial Application of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” in Fons Coomans & Menno T Kamminga, eds, Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights Treaties (Cambridge, UK: Intersentia, 2004) at 201, 222–229; van Schaack, supra note 376 at 28–29.
Charter of the United Nations, 26 June 1945, Can TS 1945 No 7, art 55(c), online: .
Ibid, art 56. See also ibid, art 1(3). Among the purposes of the United Nations are “to achieve international cooperation...in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights....”
Maastricht Principles on Extraterritorial Obligations in the Area of Economic, Social and Political Rights, ETOs for Human Rights Beyond Borders (2013), online:
388 Ibid, s I.3.
389 Ibid, s II.9(a).
390 Ibid, s II.9(b).
391 Ibid, s II.9(c).
Emily A Mok, “International Assistance and Cooperation for Access to Essential Medicines” (2010) 12 Health & Hum Rts 73 at 76, online:
Sigrun Skogly, Beyond National Borders: States’ Human Rights Obligations in International Cooperation (Cambridge, UK: Intersentia, 2006) 66. See also Limon, supra note 373 at 454.
M Carmona, “The Obligations of ‘International Assistance and Cooperation’ Under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Possible Entry Point to a Human Rights Based Approach to Millennium Development Goal 8” (2009) 13:1 Intl J Hum Rts 86 at 91; Mark Gibney, “Responsibilities for Protecting Human Rights” (3 February 2008) 1:3 Global-e, online: .
Carmona, supra note 394 at 91.
Mok, supra note 392 at 76.
Skogly, supra note 393 at 71; Wouter Vandehoule, Is There a Legal Obligation to Cooperate Internationally for Development, Report to General Day of Discussion, Convention on the Rights of the Child (July 27, 2007), online: .
Bullis, supra note 139; Owen, supra note 16 at 214
David Morrow & Toby Svoboda, “Geoengineering and Non-Ideal Theory” (2016) 30:1 Public Aff Q 83 at 84.
400 Ibid at 86.
Toby Svoboda, “Aerosol Geoengineering Deployment and Fairness” (2016) 25 Envtl Values 51 at 65.
Morrow & Svoboda, supra note 399 at 86.
See notes 337–342 and accompanying text.
See Mark Z Jacobson & Mark A Delucchi, “Providing All Global Energy with Wind, Water, and Solar Power, Part I: Technologies, Energy Resources, Quantities and Areas of Infrastructure and Materials” (2011) 39 Energy Pol’y 1154 at 1169; Mark A Delucchi & Mark Z Jacobson, “Providing All Global Energy with Wind, Water, and Solar Power, Part II: Reliability, System and Transmission Costs and Policies” (2011) 39 Energy Pol’y 1170 to 1190. For a critical review of such proposals, see Peter J Loftus et al, “A Critical Review of Global Decarbonization Scenarios: What Do They Tell Us About Feasibility?” (2015) 6:1 Climate Change 93 at 112.
Stephen M Gardiner, “Is ‘Arming the Future’ with Geoengineering Really the Lesser Evil?” in Stephen M Gardiner et al, eds, Climate Ethics: Essential Readings (Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 2010) 284 at 292.
Australia, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, “Human Rights and Climate Change” (2008), online: at 14.
John Crowley, “Climate Change, Climate Knowledge and Human Rights” (2011), online: at 3.
Fisher, supra note 298 at 13.
The Centre for International Governance Innovation is an independent, non-partisan think tank on international governance. Led by experienced practitioners and distinguished academics, CIGI supports research, forms networks, advances policy debate and generates ideas for multilateral governance improvements. Conducting an active agenda of research, events and publications, CIGI’s interdisciplinary work includes collaboration with policy, business and academic communities around the world. CIGI’s current research programs focus on three themes: the global economy; global security & politics; and international law. CIGI was founded in 2001 by Jim Balsillie, then co-CEO of Research In Motion (BlackBerry), and collaborates with and gratefully acknowledges support from a number of strategic partners, in particular the Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario. Le CIGI a été fondé en 2001 par Jim Balsillie, qui était alors co-chef de la direction de Research In Motion (BlackBerry). Il collabore avec de nombreux partenaires stratégiques et exprime sa reconnaissance du soutien reçu de ceux-ci, notamment de l’appui reçu du gouvernement du Canada et de celui du gouvernement de l’Ontario. For more information, please visit www.cigionline.org
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
William C.G. Burns is a CIGI senior fellow with the ILRP. Until recently, he served as director of the Energy Policy & Climate Program at Johns Hopkins University, and now serves as co-director of the Forum for Climate Engineering Assessment, a scholarly initiative of the School of International Service at American University in Washington, DC. He also serves as the co-chair of the International Environmental Law Committee of the American Branch of the International Law Association. William is the former president of the Association of Environmental Studies and Sciences, as well as co-chair of the International Environmental Law interest group of the American Society of International Law. Prior to becoming an academic, William served as assistant secretary of state for public affairs for the State of Wisconsin and worked in the non-governmental sector for 20 years, including as executive director of the Pacific Center for International Studies, a think tank that focused on implementation of international wildlife treaty regimes, including the Convention on Biological Diversity and International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. William has published more than 75 articles in law, science and policy journals and has co-edited four books. His current areas of research focus are: climate geoengineering; international climate change litigation; adaptation strategies to address climate change, with a focus on the potential role of microinsurance; the effectiveness of international treaty regimes to conserve cetaceans; and how to effectively operationalize the precautionary principle in international environmental treaty regimes. William holds a Ph.D. in international environmental law from the University of WalesCardiff School of Law.
ABOUT THE ILRP
The International Law Research Program (ILRP) at CIGI is an integrated multidisciplinary research program that provides leading academics, government and private sector legal experts, as well as students from Canada and abroad, with the opportunity to contribute to advancements in international law. The ILRP strives to be the world’s leading international law research program, with recognized impact on how international law is brought to bear on significant global issues. The program’s mission is to connect knowledge, policy and practice to build the international law framework — the globalized rule of law — to support international governance of the future. Its founding belief is that better international governance, including a strengthened international law framework, can improve the lives of people everywhere, increase prosperity, ensure global sustainability, address inequality, safeguard human rights and promote a more secure world. The ILRP will focus on the areas of international law that are most important to global innovation, prosperity and sustainability: international economic law, international intellectual property law and international environmental law. In its research, the ILRP is attentive to the emerging interactions between international and transnational law, indigenous law and constitutional law.
CIGI Papers no. 111 — October 2016